Re: out-of-order XID insertion in KnownAssignedXids

From: Konstantin Knizhnik <k(dot)knizhnik(at)postgrespro(dot)ru>
To: Michael Paquier <michael(at)paquier(dot)xyz>
Cc: PostgreSQL Hackers <pgsql-hackers(at)postgresql(dot)org>
Subject: Re: out-of-order XID insertion in KnownAssignedXids
Date: 2018-10-05 08:33:08
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On 05.10.2018 11:04, Michael Paquier wrote:
> On Fri, Oct 05, 2018 at 10:06:45AM +0300, Konstantin Knizhnik wrote:
>> As you can notice, XID 2004495308 is encountered twice which cause error in
>> KnownAssignedXidsAdd:
>>     if (head > tail &&
>>         TransactionIdFollowsOrEquals(KnownAssignedXids[head - 1], from_xid))
>>     {
>>         KnownAssignedXidsDisplay(LOG);
>>         elog(ERROR, "out-of-order XID insertion in KnownAssignedXids");
>>     }
>> The probability of this error is very small but it can quite easily
>> reproduced: you should just set breakpoint in debugger after calling
>> MarkAsPrepared in twophase.c and then try to prepare any transaction.
>> MarkAsPrepared  will add GXACT to proc array and at this moment there will
>> be two entries in procarray with the same XID:
>> [snip]
>> Now generated RUNNING_XACTS record contains duplicated XIDs.
> So, I have been doing exactly that, and if you trigger a manual
> checkpoint then things happen quite correctly if you let the first
> session finish:
> rmgr: Standby len (rec/tot): 58/ 58, tx: 0, lsn:
> 0/016150F8, prev 0/01615088, desc: RUNNING_XACTS nextXid 608
> latestCompletedXid 605 oldestRunningXid 606; 2 xacts: 607 606
> If you still maintain the debugger after calling MarkAsPrepared, then
> the manual checkpoint would block. Now if you actually keep the
> debugger, and wait for a checkpoint timeout to happen, then I can see
> the incorrect record. It is impressive that your customer has been able
> to see that first, and then that you have been able to get into that
> state with simple steps.

There are about 1000 active clients performing 2PC transactions, so if
you perform backup (which does checkpoint)
then probability seems to be large enough.

I have reproduced this problem without using gdb by just running in
parallel many 2PC transactions and checkpoints:

for ((i=1;i<10;i++))
    pgbench -n -T 300000 -M prepared -f t$i.sql postgres > t$i.log &

pgbench -n -T 300000 -f checkpoint.sql postgres > checkpoint.log &


update t set val=val+1 where pk=N;
prepare transaction 'tN';
commit prepared 'tN';




>> I want to ask opinion of community about the best way of fixing this
>> problem. Should we avoid storing duplicated XIDs in procarray (by
>> invalidating XID in original pgaxct) or eliminate/change check for
>> duplicate in KnownAssignedXidsAdd (for example just ignore
>> duplicates)?
> Hmmmmm... Please let me think through that first. It seems to me that
> the record should not be generated to begin with. At least I am able to
> confirm what you see.
> --
> Michael

Konstantin Knizhnik
Postgres Professional:
The Russian Postgres Company

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