vacuumdb — garbage-collect and analyze a PostgreSQL database
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vacuumdb is a utility for cleaning a PostgreSQL database. vacuumdb will also generate internal statistics used by the PostgreSQL query optimizer.
vacuumdb is a wrapper around the SQL command VACUUM. There is no effective difference between vacuuming and analyzing databases via this utility and via other methods for accessing the server.
vacuumdb accepts the following command-line arguments:
Vacuum all databases.
Specifies the name of the database to be cleaned or
analyzed. If this is not specified and
is not used, the database name is read from the
PGDATABASE. If that is not set, the user
name specified for the connection is used.
Echo the commands that vacuumdb generates and sends to the server.
Perform “full” vacuuming.
Aggressively “freeze” tuples.
Execute the vacuum or analyze commands in parallel by
commands simultaneously. This option reduces the time of
the processing but it also increases the load on the
vacuumdb will open
connections to the database, so make sure your max_connections
setting is high enough to accommodate all
Note that using this mode together with the
FULL) option might cause deadlock
failures if certain system catalogs are processed in
Do not display progress messages.
Clean or analyze
table only. Column names
can be specified only in conjunction with the
--analyze-only options. Multiple tables
can be vacuumed by writing multiple
If you specify columns, you probably have to escape the parentheses from the shell. (See examples below.)
Print detailed information during processing.
Print the vacuumdb version and exit.
Also calculate statistics for use by the optimizer.
Only calculate statistics for use by the optimizer (no vacuum).
Only calculate statistics for use by the optimizer (no
Run several (currently three) stages of analyze with
different configuration settings, to produce usable
This option is useful to analyze a database that was
newly populated from a restored dump or by
pg_upgrade. This option will try to
create some statistics as fast as possible, to make the
database usable, and then produce full statistics in the
Show help about vacuumdb command line arguments, and exit.
vacuumdb also accepts the following command-line arguments for connection parameters:
Specifies the host name of the machine on which the server is running. If the value begins with a slash, it is used as the directory for the Unix domain socket.
Specifies the TCP port or local Unix domain socket file extension on which the server is listening for connections.
User name to connect as.
Never issue a password prompt. If the server requires
password authentication and a password is not available
by other means such as a
.pgpass file, the connection attempt
will fail. This option can be useful in batch jobs and
scripts where no user is present to enter a password.
Force vacuumdb to prompt for a password before connecting to a database.
This option is never essential, since vacuumdb will automatically prompt
for a password if the server demands password
authentication. However, vacuumdb will waste a connection
attempt finding out that the server wants a password. In
some cases it is worth typing
-W to avoid the extra connection
Specifies the name of the database to connect to
discover what other databases should be vacuumed. If not
database will be used, and if that does not exist,
template1 will be used.
Default connection parameters
This utility, like most other PostgreSQL utilities, also uses the environment variables supported by libpq (see Section 34.14).
In case of difficulty, see VACUUM and psql for discussions of potential problems and error messages. The database server must be running at the targeted host. Also, any default connection settings and environment variables used by the libpq front-end library will apply.
vacuumdb might need to
connect several times to the PostgreSQL server, asking for a password
each time. It is convenient to have a
~/.pgpass file in such cases. See Section 34.15 for more
To clean the database
To clean and analyze for the optimizer a database named
vacuumdb --analyze bigdb
To clean a single table
a database named
analyze a single column
bar of the
table for the optimizer:
vacuumdb --analyze --verbose --table='foo(bar)' xyzzy
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