vacuumdb — garbage-collect and analyze a PostgreSQL database
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vacuumdb is a utility for cleaning a PostgreSQL database. vacuumdb will also generate internal statistics used by the PostgreSQL query optimizer.
vacuumdb is a wrapper around the SQL command VACUUM. There is no effective difference between vacuuming and analyzing databases via this utility and via other methods for accessing the server.
vacuumdb accepts the following command-line arguments:
Vacuum all databases.
Specifies the name of the database to be cleaned or analyzed. If
this is not specified and
--all) is not used, the database name
is read from the environment variable
PGDATABASE. If that is not set, the user name
specified for the connection is used.
Echo the commands that vacuumdb generates and sends to the server.
Perform “full” vacuuming.
Aggressively “freeze” tuples.
Execute the vacuum or analyze commands in parallel by running
simultaneously. This option reduces the time of the processing but
it also increases the load on the database server.
vacuumdb will open
njobs connections to the database,
so make sure your max_connections
setting is high enough to accommodate all connections.
Note that using this mode together with the
FULL) option might
cause deadlock failures if certain system catalogs are processed in
Do not display progress messages.
Clean or analyze
only. Column names can be specified only in conjunction with the
--analyze-only options. Multiple tables can be
vacuumed by writing multiple
If you specify columns, you probably have to escape the parentheses from the shell. (See examples below.)
Print detailed information during processing.
Print the vacuumdb version and exit.
Also calculate statistics for use by the optimizer.
Only calculate statistics for use by the optimizer (no vacuum).
Only calculate statistics for use by the optimizer (no vacuum),
--analyze-only. Run several
(currently three) stages of analyze with different configuration
settings, to produce usable statistics faster.
This option is useful to analyze a database that was newly
populated from a restored dump or by
pg_upgrade. This option will try to create some
statistics as fast as possible, to make the database usable, and
then produce full statistics in the subsequent stages.
Show help about vacuumdb command line arguments, and exit.
vacuumdb also accepts the following command-line arguments for connection parameters:
Specifies the host name of the machine on which the server is running. If the value begins with a slash, it is used as the directory for the Unix domain socket.
Specifies the TCP port or local Unix domain socket file extension on which the server is listening for connections.
User name to connect as.
Never issue a password prompt. If the server requires password
authentication and a password is not available by other means such
.pgpass file, the connection
attempt will fail. This option can be useful in batch jobs and
scripts where no user is present to enter a password.
Force vacuumdb to prompt for a password before connecting to a database.
This option is never essential, since vacuumdb will automatically prompt for a
password if the server demands password authentication. However,
vacuumdb will waste a connection
attempt finding out that the server wants a password. In some cases
it is worth typing
-W to avoid the
extra connection attempt.
Specifies the name of the database to connect to discover what
other databases should be vacuumed. If not specified, the
postgres database will be used, and if
that does not exist,
template1 will be
Default connection parameters
This utility, like most other PostgreSQL utilities, also uses the environment variables supported by libpq (see Section 33.14).
In case of difficulty, see VACUUM and psql for discussions of potential problems and error messages. The database server must be running at the targeted host. Also, any default connection settings and environment variables used by the libpq front-end library will apply.
vacuumdb might need to connect
several times to the PostgreSQL
server, asking for a password each time. It is convenient to have a
~/.pgpass file in such cases. See
Section 33.15 for more
To clean the database
To clean and analyze for the optimizer a database named
vacuumdb --analyze bigdb
To clean a single table
foo in a
xyzzy, and analyze a
bar of the table for the
vacuumdb --analyze --verbose --table='foo(bar)' xyzzy
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