16th June 2022: PostgreSQL 14.4 Released!

PostgreSQL Weekly News - March 14, 2021

Posted on 2021-03-15 by PWN
PWN

PostgreSQL Weekly News - March 14, 2021

Person of the week: https://postgresql.life/post/corey_huinker/

PostgreSQL Jobs for March

https://archives.postgresql.org/pgsql-jobs/2021-03/

PostgreSQL in the News

Planet PostgreSQL: https://planet.postgresql.org/

PostgreSQL Weekly News is brought to you this week by David Fetter

Submit news and announcements by Sunday at 3:00pm PST8PDT to david@fetter.org.

Applied Patches

Amit Kapila pushed:

Tom Lane pushed:

  • Further tweak memory management for regex DFAs. Coverity is still unhappy after commit 190c79884, and after looking closer I think it might be onto something. The callers of newdfa() typically drop out if v->err has been set nonzero, which newdfa() is faithfully doing if it fails. However, what if v->err was already nonzero before we entered newdfa()? Then newdfa() could succeed and the caller would promptly leak its result. I don't think this scenario can actually happen, but the predicate "v->err is always zero when newdfa() is called" seems difficult to be entirely sure of; there's a good deal of code that potentially could get that wrong. It seems better to adjust the callers to directly check for a null result instead of relying on ISERR() tests. This is slightly cheaper than the previous coding anyway. Lacking evidence that there's any real bug, no back-patch. https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/6c20bdb2a279086777a3595ab00bcf14671fc5a1

  • Validate the OID argument of pg_import_system_collations(). "SELECT pg_import_system_collations(0)" caused an assertion failure. With a random nonzero argument --- or indeed with zero, in non-assert builds --- it would happily make pg_collation entries with garbage values of collnamespace. These are harmless as far as I can tell (unless maybe the OID happens to become used for a schema, later on?). In any case this isn't a security issue, since the function is superuser-only. But it seems like a gotcha for unwary DBAs, so let's add a check that the given OID belongs to some schema. Back-patch to v10 where this function was introduced. https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/5c06abb9b97b69513a3998cccf89556e73052e02

  • Properly mark pg_stat_get_subscription() as returning a set. The initial catalog data for this function failed to set proretset or provide a prorows estimate. It accidentally worked anyway when invoked in the FROM clause, because the executor isn't too picky about this; but the planner didn't expect the function to return multiple rows, which could lead to bad plans. Also the function would fail if invoked in the SELECT list. We can't easily back-patch this fix, but fortunately the bug's consequences aren't awful in most cases. Getting this right is mainly an exercise in future-proofing. Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/1636062.1615141782@sss.pgh.pa.us https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/fed10d4eec79242688382d03ddca82007160ee6f

  • Complain if a function-in-FROM returns a set when it shouldn't. Throw a "function protocol violation" error if a function in FROM tries to return a set though it wasn't marked proretset. Although such cases work at the moment, it doesn't seem like something we want to guarantee will keep working. Besides, there are other negative consequences of not setting the proretset flag, such as potentially bad plans. No back-patch, since if there is any third-party code violating this expectation, people wouldn't appreciate us breaking it in a minor release. Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/1636062.1615141782@sss.pgh.pa.us https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/d4545dc19b8ea670bf62e06d22b0e4e6fcb45153

  • Doc: fix missing mention of procedure OUT parameters. Small oversight in commit 2453ea142. https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/3ebc6d295705fec37dc8f57a4ece54b370f55f72

  • Doc: improve introductory information about procedures. Clarify the discussion in "User-Defined Procedures", by laying out the key differences between functions and procedures in a bulleted list. Notably, this avoids burying the lede about procedures being able to do transaction control. Make the back-link in the CREATE FUNCTION reference page more prominent, and add one in CREATE PROCEDURE. Per gripe from Guyren Howe. Thanks to David Johnston for discussion. Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/BYAPR03MB4903C53A8BB7EFF5EA289674A6949@BYAPR03MB4903.namprd03.prod.outlook.com https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/227338b00d498d9e1c5705a1ab118585e5d57c87

  • Doc: get rid of <foreignphrase> tags. We italicized some, but not all, instances of "per se", "pro forma", and "ad hoc". These phrases are widespread in formal registers of English, so it"s debatable whether they even qualify as foreign. We could instead try to be more consistent in the use of <foreignphrase>, but that"s difficult to enforce, so let"s just remove the tags for those words. The one case that seems to deserve the tag is "voilà". Instead of keeping just one instance of the tag, change that to a more standard phrase. John Naylor Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/CAFBsxsHtWs_NsccAVgQ=tTUKkXHpHdkjZXtp_Cd9dGWyBDxfbQ@mail.gmail.com https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/b12436340adf27aa3d334c92579e6662dd3090ce

  • Avoid creating duplicate cached plans for inherited FK constraints. When a foreign key constraint is applied to a partitioned table, each leaf partition inherits a similar FK constraint. We were processing all of those constraints independently, meaning that in large partitioning trees we'd build up large collections of cached FK-checking query plans. However, in all cases but one, the generated queries are actually identical for all members of the inheritance tree (because, in most cases, the query only mentions the topmost table of the other side of the FK relationship). So we can share a single cached plan among all the partitions, saving memory, not to mention time to build and maintain the cached plans. Keisuke Kuroda and Amit Langote Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/cab4b85d-9292-967d-adf2-be0d803c3e23@nttcom.co.jp_1 https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/c3ffe34863688115dd7878f118f2a123bafd8a26

  • Re-simplify management of inStart in pqParseInput3's subroutines. Commit 92785dac2 copied some logic related to advancement of inStart from pqParseInput3 into getRowDescriptions and getAnotherTuple, because it wanted to allow user-defined row processor callbacks to potentially longjmp out of the library, and inStart would have to be updated before that happened to avoid an infinite loop. We later decided that that API was impossibly fragile and reverted it, but we didn't undo all of the related code changes, and this bit of messiness survived. Undo it now so that there's just one place in pqParseInput3's processing where inStart is advanced; this will simplify addition of better tracing support. getParamDescriptions had grown similar processing somewhere along the way (not in 92785dac2; I didn't track down just when), but it's actually buggy because its handling of corrupt-message cases seems to have been copied from the v2 logic where we lacked a known message length. The cases where we "goto not_enough_data" should not simply return EOF, because then we won't consume the message, potentially creating an infinite loop. That situation now represents a definitively corrupt message, and we should report it as such. Although no field reports of getParamDescriptions getting stuck in a loop have been seen, it seems appropriate to back-patch that fix. I chose to back-patch all of this to keep the logic looking more alike in supported branches. Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/2217283.1615411989@sss.pgh.pa.us https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/51c54bb603098416dc6f9d9d46a3d14861f8fc38

  • Forbid marking an identity column as nullable. GENERATED ALWAYS AS IDENTITY implies NOT NULL, but the code failed to complain if you overrode that with "GENERATED ALWAYS AS IDENTITY NULL". One might think the old behavior was a feature, but it was inconsistent because the outcome varied depending on the order of the clauses, so it seems to have been just an oversight. Per bug #16913 from Pavel Boev. Back-patch to v10 where identity columns were introduced. Vik Fearing (minor tweaks by me) Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/16913-3b5198410f67d8c6@postgresql.org https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/f52c5d6749a61fc4e0908457c58f5069910d53a6

  • Fix race condition in psql \e's detection of file modification. psql's editing commands decide whether the user has edited the file by checking for change of modification timestamp. This is probably fine for a pre-existing file, but with a temporary file that is created within the command, it's possible for a fast typist to save-and-exit in less than the one-second granularity of stat(2) timestamps. On Windows FAT filesystems the granularity is even worse, 2 seconds, making the race a bit easier to hit. To fix, try to set the temp file's mod time to be two seconds ago. It's unlikely this would fail, but then again the race condition itself is unlikely, so just ignore any error. Also, we might as well check the file size as well as its mod time. While this is a difficult bug to hit, it still seems worth back-patching, to ensure that users' edits aren't lost. Laurenz Albe, per gripe from Jacob Champion; based on fix suggestions from Jacob and myself Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/0ba3f2a658bac6546d9934ab6ba63a805d46a49b.camel@cybertec.at https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/48d67fd897918c72e7cdf703d794056b88ed5725

  • pg_amcheck: Keep trying to fix the tests. Fix another example of non-portable option ordering in the tests. Oversight in 24189277f. Mark Dilger Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/C37D28BA-3BA3-4776-B812-17F05F3472D8@enterprisedb.com https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/9e294d0f34d6e3e4fecf6f190b48862988934cde

  • Doc: add note about how to run the pg_amcheck regression tests. It's not immediately obvious what you have to do to get "make installcheck" to work here, so document that along the same lines as we've used elsewhere. https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/58f57490facdec78119e5bab84229dbdc1d5ac6a

Michaël Paquier pushed:

  • Remove support for SSL compression. PostgreSQL disabled compression as of e3bdb2d and the documentation recommends against using it since. Additionally, SSL compression has been disabled in OpenSSL since version 1.1.0, and was disabled in many distributions long before that. The most recent TLS version, TLSv1.3, disallows compression at the protocol level. This commit removes the feature itself, removing support for the libpq parameter sslcompression (parameter still listed for compatibility reasons with existing connection strings, just ignored), and removes the equivalent field in pg_stat_ssl and de facto PgBackendSSLStatus. Note that, on top of removing the ability to activate compression by configuration, compression is actively disabled in both frontend and backend to avoid overrides from local configurations. A TAP test is added for deprecated SSL parameters to check after backwards compatibility. Bump catalog version. Author: Daniel Gustafsson Reviewed-by: Peter Eisentraut, Magnus Hagander, Michael Paquier Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/7E384D48-11C5-441B-9EC3-F7DB1F8518F6@yesql.se https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/f9264d1524baa19e4a0528f033681ef16f61b137

  • Add support for more progress reporting in COPY. The command (TO or FROM), its type (file, pipe, program or callback), and the number of tuples excluded by a WHERE clause in COPY FROM are added to the progress reporting already available. The column "lines_processed" is renamed to "tuples_processed" to disambiguate the meaning of this column in the cases of CSV and BINARY COPY and to be more consistent with the other catalog progress views. Bump catalog version, again. Author: Matthias van de Meent Reviewed-by: Michael Paquier, Justin Pryzby, Bharath Rupireddy, Josef Šimánek, Tomas Vondra Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/CAEze2WiOcgdH4aQA8NtZq-4dgvnJzp8PohdeKchPkhMY-jWZXA@mail.gmail.com https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/9d2d45700928d49212fb7ed140feeaebe3a6014f

  • Switch back sslcompression to be a normal input field in libpq. Per buildfarm member crake, any servers including a postgres_fdw server with this option set would fail to do a pg_upgrade properly as the option got hidden in f9264d1 by becoming a debug option, making the restore of the FDW server fail. This changes back the option in libpq to be visible, but still inactive to fix this upgrade issue. Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/YEbq15JKJwIX+S6m@paquier.xyz https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/096bbf7c934a4288c9e48a6ac8e91d8753ac1ccd

  • Revert changes for SSL compression in libpq. This partially reverts 096bbf7 and 9d2d457, undoing the libpq changes as it could cause breakages in distributions that share one single libpq version across multiple major versions of Postgres for extensions and applications linking to that. Note that the backend is unchanged here, and it still disables SSL compression while simplifying the underlying catalogs that tracked if compression was enabled or not for a SSL connection. Per discussion with Tom Lane and Daniel Gustafsson. Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/YEbq15JKJwIX+S6m@paquier.xyz https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/0ba71107efeeccde9158f47118f95043afdca0bb

  • Move tablespace path re-creation from the makefiles to pg_regress. Moving this logic into pg_regress fixes a potential failure with parallel tests when pg_upgrade and the main regression test suite both trigger the makefile rule that cleaned up testtablespace/ under src/test/regress. Even if pg_upgrade was triggering this rule, it has no need to do so as it uses a different tablespace path. So if pg_upgrade triggered the makefile rule for the tablespace setup while the main regression test suite ran the tablespace cases, it would fail. 61be85a was a similar attempt at achieving that, but that broke cases where the regression tests require to run under an Administrator account, like with Appveyor. Reported-by: Andres Freund, Kyotaro Horiguchi Reviewed-by: Peter Eisentraut Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/20201209012911.uk4d6nxcnkp7ehrx@alap3.anarazel.de https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/6c788d9f6aadb41d76a72d56149268371a7895ee

  • Set libcrypto callbacks for all connection threads in libpq. Based on an analysis of the OpenSSL code with Jacob, moving to EVP for the cryptohash computations makes necessary the setup of the libcrypto callbacks that were getting set only for SSL connections, but not for connections without SSL. Not setting the callbacks makes the use of threads potentially unsafe for connections calling cryptohashes during authentication, like MD5 or SCRAM, if a failure happens during a cryptohash computation. The logic setting the libssl and libcrypto states is then split into two parts, both using the same locking, with libcrypto being set up for SSL and non-SSL connections, while SSL connections set any libssl state afterwards as needed. Prior to this commit, only SSL connections would have set libcrypto callbacks that are necessary to ensure a proper thread locking when using multiple concurrent threads in libpq (ENABLE_THREAD_SAFETY). Note that this is only required for OpenSSL 1.0.2 and 1.0.1 (oldest version supported on HEAD), as 1.1.0 has its own internal locking and it has dropped support for CRYPTO_set_locking_callback(). Tests with up to 300 threads with OpenSSL 1.0.1 and 1.0.2, mixing SSL and non-SSL connection threads did not show any performance impact after some micro-benchmarking. pgbench can be used here with -C and a mostly-empty script (with one \set meta-command for example) to stress authentication requests, and we have mixed that with some custom programs for testing. Reported-by: Jacob Champion Author: Michael Paquier Reviewed-by: Jacob Champion Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/fd3ba610085f1ff54623478cf2f7adf5af193cbb.camel@vmware.com https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/2c0cefcd18161549e9e8b103f46c0f65fca84d99

Fujii Masao pushed:

  • Track total amounts of times spent writing and syncing WAL data to disk. This commit adds new GUC track_wal_io_timing. When this is enabled, the total amounts of time XLogWrite writes and issue_xlog_fsync syncs WAL data to disk are counted in pg_stat_wal. This information would be useful to check how much WAL write and sync affect the performance. Enabling track_wal_io_timing will make the server query the operating system for the current time every time WAL is written or synced, which may cause significant overhead on some platforms. To avoid such additional overhead in the server with track_io_timing enabled, this commit introduces track_wal_io_timing as a separate parameter from track_io_timing. Note that WAL write and sync activity by walreceiver has not been tracked yet. This commit makes the server also track the numbers of times XLogWrite writes and issue_xlog_fsync syncs WAL data to disk, in pg_stat_wal, regardless of the setting of track_wal_io_timing. This counters can be used to calculate the WAL write and sync time per request, for example. Bump PGSTAT_FILE_FORMAT_ID. Bump catalog version. Author: Masahiro Ikeda Reviewed-By: Japin Li, Hayato Kuroda, Masahiko Sawada, David Johnston, Fujii Masao Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/0509ad67b585a5b86a83d445dfa75392@oss.nttdata.com https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/ff99918c625a84c91e7391db9032112ec8653623

  • Force to send remaining WAL stats to the stats collector at walwriter exit. In walwriter's main loop, WAL stats message is only sent if enough time has passed since last one was sent to reach PGSTAT_STAT_INTERVAL msecs. This is necessary to avoid overloading to the stats collector. But this can cause recent WAL stats to be unsent when walwriter exits. To ensure that all the WAL stats are sent, this commit makes walwriter force to send remaining WAL stats to the collector when it exits because of shutdown request. Note that those remaining WAL stats can still be unsent when walwriter exits with non-zero exit code (e.g., FATAL error). This is OK because that walwriter exit leads to server crash and subsequent recovery discards all the stats. So there is no need to send remaining stats in that case. Author: Masahiro Ikeda Reviewed-by: Fujii Masao Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/0509ad67b585a5b86a83d445dfa75392@oss.nttdata.com https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/33394ee6f2433d3cc7785428a77cc9a813254df7

  • Send statistics collected during shutdown checkpoint to the stats collector. When shutdown is requested, checkpointer performs checkpoint or restartpoint, and updates the statistics, before it exits. But previously checkpointer didn't send those statistics to the stats collector. Shutdown checkpoint and restartpoint are treated as requested ones instead of scheduled ones, so the number of them are counted in pg_stat_bgwriter.checkpoints_req column. Author: Masahiro Ikeda Reviewed-by: Fujii Masao Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/0509ad67b585a5b86a83d445dfa75392@oss.nttdata.com https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/b82640df0062483431608b7e9e074255f03e6c02

Peter Eisentraut pushed:

Alexander Korotkov pushed:

Thomas Munro pushed:

Bruce Momjian pushed:

Peter Geoghegan pushed:

  • Don't consider newly inserted tuples in nbtree VACUUM. Remove the entire idea of "stale stats" within nbtree VACUUM (stop caring about stats involving the number of inserted tuples). Also remove the vacuum_cleanup_index_scale_factor GUC/param on the master branch (though just disable them on postgres 13). The vacuum_cleanup_index_scale_factor/stats interface made the nbtree AM partially responsible for deciding when pg_class.reltuples stats needed to be updated. This seems contrary to the spirit of the index AM API, though -- it is not actually necessary for an index AM's bulk delete and cleanup callbacks to provide accurate stats when it happens to be inconvenient. The core code owns that. (Index AMs have the authority to perform or not perform certain kinds of deferred cleanup based on their own considerations, such as page deletion and recycling, but that has little to do with pg_class.reltuples/num_index_tuples.) This issue was fairly harmless until the introduction of the autovacuum_vacuum_insert_threshold feature by commit b07642db, which had an undesirable interaction with the vacuum_cleanup_index_scale_factor mechanism: it made insert-driven autovacuums perform full index scans, even though there is no real benefit to doing so. This has been tied to a regression with an append-only insert benchmark [1]. Also have remaining cases that perform a full scan of an index during a cleanup-only nbtree VACUUM indicate that the final tuple count is only an estimate. This prevents vacuumlazy.c from setting the index's pg_class.reltuples in those cases (it will now only update pg_class when vacuumlazy.c had TIDs for nbtree to bulk delete). This arguably fixes an oversight in deduplication-related bugfix commit 48e12913. [1] https://smalldatum.blogspot.com/2021/01/insert-benchmark-postgres-is-still.html Author: Peter Geoghegan pg@bowt.ie Reviewed-By: Masahiko Sawada sawada.mshk@gmail.com Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/CAD21AoA4WHthN5uU6+WScZ7+J_RcEjmcuH94qcoUPuB42ShXzg@mail.gmail.com Backpatch: 13-, where autovacuum_vacuum_insert_threshold was added. https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/9f3665fbfc34b963933e51778c7feaa8134ac885

  • VACUUM ANALYZE: Always update pg_class.reltuples. vacuumlazy.c sometimes fails to update pg_class entries for each index (to ensure that pg_class.reltuples is current), even though analyze.c assumed that that must have happened during VACUUM ANALYZE. There are at least a couple of reasons for this. For example, vacuumlazy.c could fail to update pg_class when the index AM indicated that its statistics are merely an estimate, per the contract for amvacuumcleanup() routines established by commit e57345975cf back in 2006. Stop assuming that pg_class must have been updated with accurate statistics within VACUUM ANALYZE -- update pg_class for indexes at the same time as the table relation in all cases. That way VACUUM ANALYZE will never fail to keep pg_class.reltuples reasonably accurate. The only downside of this approach (compared to the old approach) is that it might inaccurately set pg_class.reltuples for indexes whose heap relation ends up with the same inaccurate value anyway. This doesn't seem too bad. We already consistently called vac_update_relstats() (to update pg_class) for the heap/table relation twice during any VACUUM ANALYZE -- once in vacuumlazy.c, and once in analyze.c. We now make sure that we call vac_update_relstats() at least once (though often twice) for each index. This is follow up work to commit 9f3665fb, which dealt with issues in btvacuumcleanup(). Technically this fixes an unrelated issue, though. btvacuumcleanup() no longer provides an accurate num_index_tuples value following commit 9f3665fb (when there was no btbulkdelete() call during the VACUUM operation in question), but hashvacuumcleanup() has worked in the same way for many years now. Author: Peter Geoghegan pg@bowt.ie Reviewed-By: Masahiko Sawada sawada.mshk@gmail.com Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/CAH2-WzknxdComjhqo4SUxVFk_Q1171GJO2ZgHZ1Y6pion6u8rA@mail.gmail.com Backpatch: 13-, just like commit 9f3665fb. https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/5f8727f5a679452f7bbdd6966a1586934dcaa84f

  • Doc: B-Tree only has one additional parameter. Oversight in commit 9f3665fb. Backpatch: 13-, just like commit 9f3665fb. https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/3f0daeb02f8dd605f89de9aa2349137c09cc7fb4

  • Add back vacuum_cleanup_index_scale_factor parameter. Commit 9f3665fb removed the vacuum_cleanup_index_scale_factor storage parameter. However, that creates dump/reload hazards when moving across major versions. Add back the vacuum_cleanup_index_scale_factor parameter (though not the GUC of the same name) purely to avoid problems when using tools like pg_upgrade. The parameter remains disabled and undocumented. No backpatch to Postgres 13, since vacuum_cleanup_index_scale_factor was only disabled by REL_13_STABLE's version of master branch commit 9f3665fb in the first place -- the parameter already looks like this on REL_13_STABLE. Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/YEm/a3Ko3nKnBuVq@paquier.xyz https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/effdd3f3b633e88feaa675377075f02ecc99aee4

  • Save a few cycles during nbtree VACUUM. Avoid calling RelationGetNumberOfBlocks() unnecessarily in the common case where there are no deleted but not yet recycled pages to recycle during a cleanup-only nbtree VACUUM operation. Follow-up to commit e5d8a999, which (among other things) taught the "skip full scan" nbtree VACUUM mechanism to only trigger a full index scan when the absolute number of deleted pages in the index is considered excessive. https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/7bb97211a5589265f3f88183ae9353639ab184c6

  • Consolidate nbtree VACUUM metapage routines. Simplify _bt_vacuum_needs_cleanup() functions's signature (it only needs a single 'rel' argument now), and move it next to its sibling function in nbtpage.c. I believe that _bt_vacuum_needs_cleanup() was originally located in nbtree.c due to an include dependency issue. That's no longer an issue. Follow-up to commit 9f3665fb. https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/02b5940dbea17d07a1dbcba3cbe113cc8b70f228

Robert Haas pushed:

Pending Patches

Etsuro Fujita sent in another revision of a patch to implement asynchronous append on postgres_fdw nodes.

Kyotaro HORIGUCHI sent in a patch to Run 011_crash_recovery.pl with wal_level=minimal, and make sure published XIDs are persistent.

Ibrar Ahmed sent in another revision of a patch to pg_rewind which fix the way the TLI is determined when server was just promoted by looking at the minRecoveryPointTLI in the control file in addition to the ThisTimeLineID on the checkpoint.

Ibrar Ahmed sent in another revision of a patch to surface popcount to SQL.

Kota Miyake sent in another revision of a patch to fix the way pgbench's \sleep command works by requiring that it take an integer argument.

Michael Banck sent in another revision of a patch to add a new PGC_ADMINSET guc context and pg_change_role_settings default role.

Andrey Borodin sent in another revision of a patch to add Sortsupport for sorting GiST build for gist_btree types.

Pavel Stěhule sent in a patch to add operators ? and ->> for type record, and functions record_keys and record_each_text.

Ajin Cherian sent in a patch to make the stream_prepare_cb optional, which allows plugins to not allow the enabling of streaming and two_phase at the same time in logical replication.

Ibrar Ahmed sent in another revision of a patch to evaluate expressions at planning time for two more cases.

Joel Jacobson sent in four more revisions of a patch to add views pg_permissions and pg_ownerships, which greatly simplify the queries establishing those things.

Ibrar Ahmed sent in another revision of a patch to implement system-versioned temporal tables.

Tomáš Vondra sent in two more revisions of a patch to implement BRIN multi-range indexes.

Tomáš Vondra and Stephen Frost traded patches to improve the logging of auto-vacuum and auto-analyze by including the I/O timing if track_io_timing is enabled. Also, for auto-analyze, add the read rate and the dirty rate, similar to how that information has historically been logged for auto-vacuum

Masahiro Ikeda and Fujii Masao traded patches to send stats for both walwriter and checkpointer when shutting down.

Dilip Kumar and Justin Pryzby traded patches to implement custom compression methods for tables.

Bharath Rupireddy sent in another revision of a patch to implement EXPLAIN [ANALYZE] REFRESH MATERIALIZED VIEW.

Greg Nancarrow and Hou Zhijie traded patches to implement parallel INSERT (INTO ... SELECT ...).

Ibrar Ahmed and Kazutaka Onishi traded patches to implement TRUNCATE on foreign tables.

Peter Smith and Ajin Cherian traded patches to implement logical decoding of two-phase transactions.

Tatsuo Ishii sent in two revisions of a patch to make it possible to use COPY FREEZE in pgbench.

Peter Smith sent in a patch To Give the tablesync worker an opportunity to see if it can exit immediately (because it has already caught-up) without it needing to process a message first before discovering that.

Yugo Nagata sent in another revision of a patch to implement incremental materialized views.

Arseny Sher sent in a patch to increase the vm cache used for index-only scans.

Peter Eisentraut sent in another revision of a patch to add support for writing CREATE FUNCTION and CREATE PROCEDURE statements for language SQL with a function body that conforms to the SQL standard and is portable to other implementations.

Heikki Linnakangas sent in another revision of a patch to move a few ResourceOwnerEnlarge() calls for safety and clarity, make resowners more easily extensible, and use a 64-bit murmur hash if available to make this go faster.

Tomáš Vondra sent in another revision of a patch to control the removal temporary files after crash with a new GUC, remove_temp_files_after_crash.

Jacob Champion sent in two more revisions of a patch to store the client's DN in port->peer_dn, and use this to log the authenticated identity from all auth backends.

Joel Jacobson sent in another revision of a patch to implement regexp_positions.

Justin Pryzby sent in a patch to make pg_dump use a cursor in getBlobs to mitigate huge memory use in the case of millions of large objects.

Tomáš Vondra sent in another revision of a patch to make GROUP BY more efficient.

Erica Zhang sent in two revisions of a patch to add some tests for pg_stat_statements compatibility verification under contrib.

Matthias van de Meent sent in three revisions of a patch to truncate a pages' line pointer array when it has trailing unused ItemIds. This will allow reuse of what is effectively free space for data as well as new line pointers, instead of keeping it reserved for line pointers only. An additional benefit is that the HasFreeLinePointers hint-bit optimization now doesn't hint for free line pointers at the end of the array, slightly increasing the specificity of where the free lines are; and saving us from needing to search to the end of the array if all other entries are already filled.

Magnus Hagander sent in another revision of a patch to add PROXY protocol support.

Floris Van Nee sent in another revision of a patch to allow inserting tuples into almost-empty pages.

Marcus Wanner sent in a patch to Add an xid argument to the filter_prepare callback for the output plugin.

Kyotaro HORIGUCHI and Fujii Masao traded patches to change the temporary storage used by the stats collector from files to shared memory.

Amul Sul and Ibrar Ahmed traded patches to put in some machinery to make it possible to implement ALTER SYSTEM READ {ONLY|WRITE}.

Masahiko Sawada sent in another revision of a patch to make autovacuum logs a little more informative.

Bharath Rupireddy sent in another revision of a patch to add new table AMs for multi- and single inserts, and use same for CTAS, REFRESH MATERIALIZED VIEW, and COPY.

Yuzuko Hosoya sent in another revision of a patch to release SPI plans for referential integrity with DISCARD ALL.

John Naylor sent in a patch to get rid of the <foreignphrase> tags in the docs.

John Naylor sent in a patch to make popcount xor try indirection at the buffer level.

Masahiko Sawada sent in a patch to remove an unneeded bsearch from vacuumlazy.c

Craig Ringer sent in another revision of a patch to pass the target LWLock* and tranche ID to LWLock tracepoints, add to the tracepoints in LWLock routines, and add SDT tracepoints for backend type and postmaster pid on startup.

Bharath Rupireddy sent in two revisions of a patch to make the error messages in check_publication_add_relation a bit more informative and consistent.

Iwata Aya, Álvaro Herrera, and Tom Lane traded patches to add tracing capability to libpq.

David Rowley sent in two more revisions of a patch to cache PathTarget and RestrictInfo's volatility, allow estimate_num_groups() to pass back further details about the estimation, allow users of simplehash.h to perform direct deletions, add a Result Cache executor node, and remove code duplication in nodeResultCache.c.

Nathan Bossart and Laurenz Albe traded patches to document ALTER ROLE ... SET ROLE.

Mark Dilger and Robert Haas traded patches to add a frontend utility program, pg_amcheck.

Peter Geoghegan sent in another revision of a patch to recycle pages deleted during same VACUUM.

Thomas Munro sent in another revision of a patch to track relation sizes in shared memory, provide a lock-free fast path for smgrnblocks(), and update fifo to lru to sweep a valid cache.

Thomas Munro sent in a patch to make ProcSendSignal() more efficient by using pg_procno instead of scanning the ProcArray and keeping track of the startup process.

Hou Zhijie sent in another revision of a patch to avoid CommandCounterIncrement in RI triggers when performing an INSERT INTO referencing table.

Álvaro Herrera sent in another revision of a patch to implement ALTER TABLE ... DETACH PARTITION CONCURRENTLY.

Álvaro Herrera sent in two more revisions of a patch to implement batch/pipelining support for libpq.

Fabien COELHO and Dean Rasheed traded patches to add a pseudo-random permutation function to pgbench.

Bruce Momjian sent in another revision of a patch to add key management.

Takayuki Tsunakawa sent in another revision of a patch to speed up COPY FROM into tables with foreign partitions.

Hao Wu sent in a patch intended to fix a bug where HotStandbyActive() returns true after the node is promoted.

Takayuki Tsunakawa sent in two revisions of a patch to fix an overflow when counting the number of buffers to invalidate.

Andrey Borodin sent in another revision of a patch to make all SLRU buffer sizes configurable.

Tom Lane sent in two revisions of a patch to clean up the documentation of variable usage in PL/pgsql.

Thomas Munro sent in another revision of a patch to run the checkpointer and bgworker in crash recovery, log buffer stats after crash recovery, and make it possible not to wait for the end-of-recovery checkpoint.

Justin Pryzby sent in two more revisions of a patch to allow alternate compression methods for wal_compression.

Mark Rofail and Justin Pryzby traded patches to implement foreign key arrays.

Pavel Stěhule sent in another revision of a patch to implement schema variables.

Michaël Paquier and Soumyadeep Chakraborty traded patches to fix an infelicity between PITR and 2PC.

Pavel Stěhule sent in two more revisions of a patch to add a #routine_label pragma to PL/pgsql.

Thomas Munro sent in a patch to add bsearch and unique templates to sort_template.h, supply sort/search specializations for some common scalar types, use qsort_oid() and friends in obvious places, supply specialized sort/search routines for ItemPtrData, use qsort_itemptr() and friends in various places, specialize the HeapTuple sort routine for ANALYZE by use "encoded" format, based on 48 bit integers that can be compared by subtraction, avoiding a branch, specialize the pagetable sort routines in tidbitmap.c, specialize some sort/search routines in nbtree code, and specialize the sort routine used by multixact.c.

Julien Rouhaud sent in another revision of a patch to move pg_stat_statements query jumbling to core, expose queryid in pg_stat_activity and log_line_prefix, and expose query identifier in verbose explain.

Dmitry Dolgov sent in another revision of a patch to introduce skip scans.

Julien Rouhaud sent in another revision of a patch to add a new OUTDATED filtering facility for REINDEX command, and add a corresponding --outdated option to reindexdb.

Alexander Lakhin sent in a patch to use microsoft_native_stat in pgwin32_open.

Thomas Munro sent in two more revisions of a patch to optionally use syncfs() for SyncDataDirectory() on Linux.