Page Scan Mode in Hash Index

From: Ashutosh Sharma <ashu(dot)coek88(at)gmail(dot)com>
To: pgsql-hackers <pgsql-hackers(at)postgresql(dot)org>
Subject: Page Scan Mode in Hash Index
Date: 2017-02-14 05:27:50
Message-ID: CAE9k0Pm3KTx93K8_5j6VMzG4h5F+SyknxUwXrN-zqSZ9X8ZS3w@mail.gmail.com
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Hi All,

Currently, Hash Index scan works tuple-at-a-time, i.e. for every
qualifying tuple in a page, it acquires and releases the lock which
eventually increases the lock/unlock traffic. For example, if an index
page contains 100 qualified tuples, the current hash index scan has to
acquire and release the lock 100 times to read those qualified tuples
which is not good from performance perspective and it also impacts
concurency with VACUUM.

Considering above points, I would like to propose a patch that allows
hash index scan to work in page-at-a-time mode. In page-at-a-time
mode, once lock is acquired on a target bucket page, the entire page
is scanned and all the qualified tuples are saved into backend's local
memory. This reduces the lock/unlock calls for retrieving tuples from
a page. Moreover, it also eliminates the problem of re-finding the
position of the last returned index tuple and more importanly it
allows VACUUM to release lock on current page before moving to the
next page which eventually improves it's concurrency with scan.

Attached patch modifies hash index scan code for page-at-a-time mode.
For better readability, I have splitted it into 3 parts,

1) 0001-Rewrite-hash-index-scans-to-work-a-page-at-a-time.patch: this
patch rewrites the hash index scan module to work in page-at-a-time
mode. It basically introduces two new functions-- _hash_readpage() and
_hash_saveitem(). The former is used to load all the qualifying tuples
from a target bucket or overflow page into an items array. The latter
one is used by _hash_readpage to save all the qualifying tuples found
in a page into an items array. Apart from that, this patch bascially
cleans _hash_first(), _hash_next and hashgettuple().

2) 0002-Remove-redundant-function-_hash_step-and-some-of-the.patch:
this patch basically removes the redundant function _hash_step() and
some of the unused members of HashScanOpaqueData structure.

3) 0003-Improve-locking-startegy-during-VACUUM-in-Hash-Index.patch:
this patch basically improves the locking strategy for VACUUM in hash
index. As the new hash index scan works in page-at-a-time, vacuum can
release the lock on previous page before acquiring a lock on the next
page, hence, improving hash index concurrency.

Please note that, above patches has to be applied on top of following
patches-- 'WAL in hash index - [1]' and 'Microvacuum support for hash
index [2]'. Note that in current head, marking of dead tuples requires
lock on the page. Now, even if hash index scan is done page-at-a-time,
it would still require a a lock on the page just to mark dead tuples.
Hence, loosing the advantage of page-at-a-time mode. Therefore, I
developed this patch over Microvacuum support for hash index [2].

I have also done the benchmarking of this patch and would like to
share the results for the same,

Firstly, I have done the benchmarking with non-unique values and i
could see a performance improvement of 4-7%. For the detailed results
please find the attached file 'results-non-unique values-70ff', and
ddl.sql, test.sql are test scripts used in this experimentation. The
detail of non-default GUC params and pgbench command are mentioned in
the result sheet. I also did the benchmarking with unique values at
300 and 1000 scale factor and its results are provided in
'results-unique-values-default-ff'.

[1]- https://www.postgresql.org/message-id/CAA4eK1LTyDHyCmj3pf5KxWgPb1DgNae9ivsB5jX0X_Kt7iLTUA%40mail.gmail.com
[2]- https://www.postgresql.org/message-id/CAA4eK1JfrJoa15XStmRKy6mGsVjKh_aa-EXZY%2BUZQOV6mGM0QQ%40mail.gmail.com

Attachment Content-Type Size
0001-Rewrite-hash-index-scans-to-work-a-page-at-a-time.-T.patch invalid/octet-stream 22.9 KB
0002-Remove-redundant-function-_hash_step-and-some-of-the.patch invalid/octet-stream 8.4 KB
0003-Improve-locking-startegy-during-VACUUM-in-Hash-Index.patch invalid/octet-stream 1.5 KB
results-non-unique-values-70ff.xlsx application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet 5.4 KB
ddl.sql application/sql 164.4 KB
test.sql application/sql 121 bytes
results-unique-values-default-ff.xlsx application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet 6.9 KB

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