Proposal: generic WAL compression

From: Oleg Ivanov <o(dot)ivanov(at)postgrespro(dot)ru>
To: pgsql-hackers(at)postgresql(dot)org
Subject: Proposal: generic WAL compression
Date: 2017-10-31 23:43:59
Message-ID: 59F90ABF.2060407@postgrespro.ru
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Hackers,

a few years ago generic WAL was proposed by Alexander Korotkov
(https://www.postgresql.org/message-id/flat/CAPpHfdsXwZmojm6Dx%2BTJnpYk27kT4o7Ri6X_4OSWcByu1Rm%2BVA%40mail(dot)gmail(dot)com#CAPpHfdsXwZmojm6Dx+TJnpYk27kT4o7Ri6X_4OSWcByu1Rm+VA(at)mail(dot)gmail(dot)com).
and was committed into PostgreSQL 9.6.
One of the generic WAL advantages is the common interface for safe
interaction with WAL for modules and extensions. The interface allows
module to register the page, then change it, and then generic WAL
generates and writes into xlog the algorithm of changing the old version
of page into the new one. In the case of crash and recovery this
algorithm may be applied.

Bloom and RUM indexes use generic WAL. The issue is that the generic
algorithm of turning the old page into the new one is not optimal in the
sense of record size in xlog. Now the main idea of the approach is to
find all positions in the page where new version is different from the
original one and write these changes into xlog. It works well if the
page was rewritten completely or if only a few bytes have been changed.
Nevertheless, this approach produces too large WAL record in the case of
inserting or deleting a few bytes into the page. In this case there are
almost no position where the old version and the new one are equal, so
the record size is near the page size, but actual amount of changes in
the page is small. This is exactly what happens often in RUM indexes.

In order to overcome that issue, I would like to propose the patch,
which provides possibility to use another approach of the WAL record
construction. If another approach fails to make a short enough record,
it rolls back to the original approach. The main idea of another
approach is not to perform bytewise comparison of pages, but finding the
minimal editing distance between two pages and the corresponding editing
algorithm. In the general case, finding editing distance takes O(N^2)
time and memory. But there is also an algorithm which requires only
O(ND) time and O(D^2) memory, where D is the editing distance between
two sequences. Also for given D algorithm may show that the minimal
editing distance between two sequences is more than D in the same amount
of time and memory.

The special case of this algorithm which does not consider replace
operations is described in the paper
(http://www.xmailserver.org/diff2.pdf). The version of this algorithm
which consumes O(ND) time and O(N) memory is used in diff console
command, but for our purposes we don't need to increase the constant for
the time in order to decrease memory complexity. For RUM indexes we
usually have small enough editing distance (less than 64), so D^2 is not
too much to store.

The results of experiments:

+------------------------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+
| Name | WAL_diff(MB) | WAL_orig(MB) |
Time_diff(s) | Time_orig(s) |
+------------------------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+
| rum: make installcheck | 38.9 | 82.5 | 4.37
| 4.16 |
+------------------------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+
| bloom: make installcheck | 1.0 | 1.0 | 0.66 |
0.53 |
+------------------------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+
| test00.sql | 20.5 | 51.0 | 1.86 |
1.41 |
+------------------------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+
| test01.sql | 207.1 | 219.7 | 8.06 | 6.89
|
+------------------------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+

We can see that the patch provides a little slowdown, but compresses
generic WAL efficiently for RUM index. Also I'm going to do a few more
experiments on this patch with another data.

The patch was tested on Lubuntu 14.04, but should not contain any
platform-specific items. The patch, the files and scripts for doing the
experiments and performance tests are attached.

Oleg Ivanov
Postgres Professional
The Russian PostgreSQL Company

Attachment Content-Type Size
generic_xlog_diffdelta_v1.patch text/x-patch 20.7 KB
postgresql.conf text/plain 22.2 KB
test00.sql application/sql 1.7 KB
test01.sql application/sql 858 bytes
test_correctness.sh application/x-shellscript 1.6 KB
total_test.sh application/x-shellscript 3.8 KB

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