|From:||Marco Nenciarini <marco(dot)nenciarini(at)2ndquadrant(dot)it>|
|Subject:||[RFC] LSN Map|
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In order to make incremental backup
(https://wiki.postgresql.org/wiki/Incremental_backup) efficient we
need a way to track the LSN of a page in a way that we can retrieve it
without reading the actual block. Below there is my proposal on how to
The purpose of the LSN map is to quickly know if a page of a relation
has been modified after a specified checkpoint.
We create an additional fork which contains a raw stream of LSNs. To
limit the space used, every entry represent the maximum LSN of a group
of blocks of a fixed size. I chose arbitrarily the size of 2048
which is equivalent to 16MB of heap data, which means that we need 64k
entry to track one terabyte of heap.
I've called this map LSN map, and I've named the corresponding fork
file as "lm".
At the moment the map is not wal logged, but is updated during the wal
reply. I'm not enough deep in WAL mechanics to see if the current
approach is sane or if we should change it.
The current implementation tracks only heap LSN. It currently does not
track any kind of indexes, but this can be easily added later. The
implementation of commands that rewrite the whole table can be
improved: cluster uses shared memory buffers instead of writing the
map directly on the disk, and moving a table to another tablespace
simply drops the map instead of updating it correctly.
The current implementation updates an entry in the map every time the
block get its LSN bumped, but we really only need to know which is the
first checkpoint that contains expired data. So setting the entry to
the last checkpoint LSN is probably enough, and will reduce the number
of writes. To implement this we only need a backend local copy of the
last checkpoint LSN, which is updated during each XLogInsert. Again,
I'm not enough deep in replication mechanics to see if this approach
could work on a standby using restartpoints instead of checkpoints.
Please advice on the best way to implement it.
This code is incomplete, and the xlog reply part must be
improved/fixed, but I think its a good start to have this feature.
I will appreciate any review, advice or critic.
Marco Nenciarini - 2ndQuadrant Italy
PostgreSQL Training, Services and Support
marco(dot)nenciarini(at)2ndQuadrant(dot)it | www.2ndQuadrant.it
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