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== PostgreSQL Weekly News - April 16 2017 ==

From: David Fetter <david(at)fetter(dot)org>
To: PostgreSQL Announce <pgsql-announce(at)postgresql(dot)org>
Subject: == PostgreSQL Weekly News - April 16 2017 ==
Date: 2017-04-16 23:03:54
Message-ID: (view raw, whole thread or download thread mbox)
Lists: pgsql-announce
== PostgreSQL Weekly News - April 16 2017 ==

PGDay Argentina 2017 will be held in Santa Fe on June 9, 2017.  The CfP is open.

== PostgreSQL Product News ==

pg_partman v3.0.1, a management system for partitioned tables, released.

== PostgreSQL Jobs for April ==

== PostgreSQL Local ==

PGCon 2017 will take place in Ottawa on 23-26 May.

Postgres Vision will take place in Boston, June 26 - 28, 2017.

Swiss PGDay in Rapperswil will take place June 30, 2017.
The CfP is open through April 14, 2017.

PostgresOpen will occur September 6-8, 2017 in San Francisco.
The CfP is open until May 30, 2017.

PGDay UK 2017 will take place July 4, 2017 in London, England, UK.  The CfP
closes April 20th 2017.

== PostgreSQL in the News ==

Planet PostgreSQL:

PostgreSQL Weekly News is brought to you this week by David Fetter

Submit news and announcements by Sunday at 3:00pm Pacific time.
Please send English language ones to david(at)fetter(dot)org, German language
to pwn(at)pgug(dot)de, Italian language to pwn(at)itpug(dot)org(dot)

== Applied Patches ==

Joe Conway pushed:

- Add partitioned table support to sepgsql.  The new partitioned table
  capability added a new relkind, namely RELKIND_PARTITIONED_TABLE. Update
  sepgsql to treat this new relkind exactly the same way it does
  RELKIND_RELATION.  In addition, add regression test coverage for partitioned
  tables.  Issue raised by Stephen Frost and initial patch by Mike Palmiotto.
  Review by Tom Lane and Robert Haas, and editorializing by me.  Discussion:

- Make sepgsql regression tests robust vs. collation differences.  In commit
  25542d77, regression test coverage was added to sepgsql for partitioned
  tables. Unfortunately it was not robust in the face of collation differences,
  per the buildfarm. Force "C" collation in order to fix that.  Discussion:

Heikki Linnakangas pushed:

- Document the "replication" option in StartupMessage.  It is documented in the
  Streaming Replication Protocol section, but was missing from the list of
  options in StartupMessage description.

- Fix indentation.  Oops, I forgot to "git add" this to previous commit.

- Minor cleanup of backend SCRAM code.  Free each SASL message after sending it.
  It's not a lot of wasted memory, and it's short-lived, but the authentication
  code in general tries to pfree() stuff, so let's follow the example.  Adding
  the pfree() revealed a little bug in build_server_first_message().  It
  attempts to keeps a copy of the sent message, but it was missing a pstrdup(),
  so the pointer started to dangle, after adding the pfree() into
  CheckSCRAMAuth().  Reword comments and debug messages slightly, while we're at
  it.  Reviewed by Michael Paquier.  Discussion:

- Improve the SASL authentication protocol.  This contains some protocol changes
  to SASL authentiation (which is new in v10): * For future-proofing, in the
  AuthenticationSASL message that begins SASL authentication, provide a list of
  SASL mechanisms that the server supports, for the client to choose from.
  Currently, it's always just SCRAM-SHA-256.  * Add a separate authentication
  message type for the final server->client SASL message, which the client
  doesn't need to respond to. This makes it unambiguous whether the client is
  supposed to send a response or not.  The SASL mechanism should know that
  anyway, but better to be explicit.  Also, in the server, support clients that
  don't send an Initial Client response in the first SASLInitialResponse
  message. The server is supposed to first send an empty request in that case,
  to which the client will respond with the data that usually comes in the
  Initial Client Response.  libpq uses the Initial Client Response field and
  doesn't need this, and I would assume any other sensible implementation to use
  Initial Client Response, too, but let's follow the SASL spec.  Improve the
  documentation on SASL authentication in protocol. Add a section describing the
  SASL message flow, and some details on our SCRAM-SHA-256 implementation.
  Document the different kinds of PasswordMessages that the frontend sends in
  different phases of SASL authentication, as well as GSS/SSPI authentication as
  separate message formats. Even though they're all 'p' messages, and the exact
  format depends on the context, describing them as separate message formats
  makes the documentation more clear.  Reviewed by Michael Paquier and Álvaro
  Hernández Tortosa.  Discussion:

- Refactor libpq authentication request processing.  Move the responsibility of
  reading the data from the authentication request message from PQconnectPoll()
  to pg_fe_sendauth(). This way, PQconnectPoll() doesn't need to know about all
  the different authentication request types, and we don't need the extra fields
  in the pg_conn struct to pass the data from PQconnectPoll() to
  pg_fe_sendauth() anymore.  Reviewed by Michael Paquier.  Discussion:

Tom Lane pushed:

- Move isolationtester's is-blocked query into C code for speed.  Commit
  4deb41381 modified isolationtester's query to see whether a session is blocked
  to also check for waits occurring in GetSafeSnapshot.  However, it did that in
  a way that enormously increased the query's runtime under
  CLOBBER_CACHE_ALWAYS, causing the buildfarm members that use that to run about
  four times slower than before, and in some cases fail entirely.  To fix, push
  the entire logic into a dedicated backend function.  This should actually
  reduce the CLOBBER_CACHE_ALWAYS runtime from what it was previously, though
  I've not checked that.  In passing, expose a SQL function to check for
  safe-snapshot blockage, comparable to pg_blocking_pids.  This is more or less
  free given the infrastructure built to solve the other problem, so we might as
  well.  Thomas Munro Discussion:

- Improve castNode notation by introducing list-extraction-specific variants.
  This extends the castNode() notation introduced by commit 5bcab1114 to
  provide, in one step, extraction of a list cell's pointer and coercion to a
  concrete node type.  For example, "lfirst_node(Foo, lc)" is the same as
  "castNode(Foo, lfirst(lc))".  Almost half of the uses of castNode that have
  appeared so far include a list extraction call, so this is pretty widely
  useful, and it saves a few more keystrokes compared to the old way.  As with
  the previous patch, back-patch the addition of these macros to pg_list.h, so
  that the notation will be available when back-patching.  Patch by me, after an
  idea of Andrew Gierth's.  Discussion:

- Fix pgbench's --progress-timestamp option to print Unix-epoch timestamps.  As
  a consequence of commit 1d63f7d2d, on platforms with CLOCK_MONOTONIC, you got
  some random timescale or other instead of standard Unix timestamps as
  expected.  I'd attempted to fix pgbench for that change in commits 74baa1e3b
  and 67a875355, but missed this place.  Fix in the same way as those previous
  commits, ie, just eat the cost of an extra gettimeofday(); one extra syscall
  per progress report isn't worth sweating over.  Per report from Jeff Janes.
  In passing, use snprintf not sprintf for this purpose.  I don't think there's
  any chance of actual buffer overrun, but it just looks safer.  Discussion:

- Handle restriction clause lists more uniformly in postgres_fdw.  Clauses in
  the lists retained by postgres_fdw during planning were sometimes bare boolean
  clauses, sometimes RestrictInfos, and sometimes a mixture of the two in the
  same list.  The comment about that situation didn't come close to telling the
  full truth, either.  Aside from being confusing, this had a couple of bad
  practical consequences: * waste of planning cycles due to inability to cache
  per-clause selectivity and cost estimates; * sometimes, RestrictInfos would
  sneak into the fdw_private list of a finished Plan node, causing failures if,
  for example, we tried to ship the Plan tree to a parallel worker.  (It may
  well be that it's a bug in the parallel-query logic that we would ever try to
  ship such a plan to a parallel worker, but in any case this deserves to be
  cleaned up.) To fix, rearrange so that clause lists in PgFdwRelationInfo are
  always lists of RestrictInfos, and then strip the RestrictInfos at the last
  minute when making a Plan node.  In passing do a bit of refactoring and
  comment cleanup in postgresGetForeignPlan and foreign_join_ok.  Although the
  messiness here dates back at least to 9.6, there's no evidence that it causes
  anything worse than wasted planning cycles in 9.6, so no back-patch for now.
  Per fuzz testing by Andreas Seltenreich.  Tom Lane and Ashutosh Bapat

- Simplify handling of remote-qual pass-forward in postgres_fdw.  Commit
  0bf3ae88a encountered a need to pass the finally chosen remote qual conditions
  forward from postgresGetForeignPlan to postgresPlanDirectModify.  It solved
  that by sticking them into the plan node's fdw_private list, which in
  hindsight was a pretty bad idea.  In the first place, there's no use for those
  qual trees either in EXPLAIN or execution; indeed they could never safely be
  used for any post-planning purposes, because they would not get processed by
  setrefs.c.  So they're just dead weight to carry around in the finished plan
  tree, plus being an attractive nuisance for somebody who might get the idea
  that they could be used that way.  Secondly, because those qual trees
  (sometimes) contained RestrictInfos, they created a plan-transmission hazard
  for parallel query, which is how come we noticed a problem.  We dealt with
  that symptom in commit 28b047875, but really a more straightforward and more
  efficient fix is to pass the data through in a new field of struct
  PgFdwRelationInfo.  So do it that way.  (There's no need to revert 28b047875,
  as it has sufficient reason to live anyway.) Per fuzz testing by Andreas
  Seltenreich.  Discussion:

- Remove bogus redefinition of _MSC_VER.  Commit a4777f355 was a shade too
  mechanical: we don't want to override MSVC's own definition of _MSC_VER, as
  that breaks tests on its numerical value.  Per buildfarm.

- Mark finished Plan nodes with parallel_safe flags.  We'd managed to avoid
  doing this so far, but it seems pretty obvious that it would be forced on us
  some day, and this is much the cleanest way of approaching the open problem
  that parallel-unsafe subplans are being transmitted to parallel workers.
  Anyway there's no space cost due to alignment considerations, and the time
  cost is pretty minimal since we're just copying the flag from the
  corresponding Path node.  (At least in most cases ... some of the klugier
  spots in createplan.c have to work a bit harder.) In principle we could
  perhaps get rid of SubPlan.parallel_safe, but I thought it better to keep that
  in case there are reasons to consider a SubPlan unsafe even when its child
  plan is parallel-safe.  This patch doesn't actually do anything with the new
  flags, but I thought I'd commit it separately anyway.  Note: although this
  touches outfuncs/readfuncs, there's no need for a catversion bump because Plan
  trees aren't stored on disk.  Discussion:

- Avoid transferring parallel-unsafe subplans to parallel workers.  Commit
  5e6d8d2bb allowed parallel workers to execute parallel-safe subplans, but it
  transmitted the query's entire list of subplans to the worker(s).  Since
  execMain.c blindly does ExecInitNode and later ExecEndNode on every list
  element, this resulted in parallel-unsafe plan nodes nonetheless getting
  started up and shut down in parallel workers.  That seems mostly harmless as
  far as core plan node types go (but maybe not so much for Gather?).  But it
  resulted in postgres_fdw opening and then closing extra remote connections,
  and it's likely that other non-parallel-safe FDWs or custom scan providers
  would have worse reactions.  To fix, just make ExecSerializePlan replace
  parallel-unsafe subplans with NULLs in the cut-down plan tree that it
  transmits to workers.  This relies on ExecInitNode and ExecEndNode to do
  nothing on NULL input, but they do anyway.  If anything else is touching the
  dropped subplans in a parallel worker, that would be a bug to be fixed.  (This
  thus provides a strong guarantee that we won't try to do something with a
  parallel-unsafe subplan in a worker.) This is, I think, the last fix directly
  occasioned by Andreas Seltenreich's bug report of a few days ago.  Tom Lane
  and Amit Kapila Discussion:

- Speed up hash_index regression test.  Commit f5ab0a14e made this test take
  substantially longer than it used to.  With a bit more care, we can get the
  runtime back down while achieving the same, or even a bit better, code
  coverage.  Mithun Cy Discussion:

- Move bootstrap-time lookup of regproc OIDs into  Formerly, the
  bootstrap backend looked up the OIDs corresponding to names in regproc catalog
  entries using brute-force searches of pg_proc.  It was somewhat remarkable
  that that worked at all, since it was used while populating other
  pretty-fundamental catalogs like pg_operator.  And it was also quite slow, and
  getting slower as pg_proc gets bigger.  This patch moves the lookup work into, so that the values in postgres.bki for regproc columns are always
  numeric OIDs, an option that regprocin() already supported.  Perl isn't the
  world's speediest language, so this about doubles the time needed to run (from 0.3 to 0.6 sec on my machine).  But we only do that at most
  once per build.  The time needed to run initdb drops significantly --- on my
  machine, initdb --no-sync goes from 1.8 to 1.3 seconds.  So this is a small
  net win even for just one initdb per build, and it becomes quite a nice win
  for test sequences requiring many initdb runs.  Strip out the now-dead code
  for brute-force catalog searching in regprocin.  We'd also cargo-culted
  similar logic into regoperin and some (not all) of the other reg*in functions.
  That is all dead code too since we currently have no need to load such values
  during bootstrap.  I removed it all, reasoning that if we ever need such
  functionality it'd be much better to do it in a similar way to this patch.
  There might be some simplifications possible in the backend now that regprocin
  doesn't require doing catalog reads so early in bootstrap.  I've not looked
  into that, though.  Andreas Karlsson, with some small adjustments by me

- Fix regexport.c to behave sanely with lookaround constraints.  regexport.c
  thought it could just ignore LACON arcs, but the correct behavior is to treat
  them as satisfiable while consuming zero input (rather reminiscently of commit
  9f1e642d5).  Otherwise, the emitted simplified-NFA representation may contain
  no paths leading from initial to final state, which unsurprisingly confuses
  pg_trgm, as seen in bug #14623 from Jeff Janes.  Since regexport's output
  representation has no concept of an arc that consumes zero input, recurse
  internally to find the next normal arc(s) after any LACON transitions.  We'd
  be forced into changing that representation if a LACON could be the last arc
  reaching the final state, but fortunately the regex library never builds NFAs
  with such a configuration, so there always is a next normal arc.  Back-patch
  to 9.3 where this logic was introduced.  Discussion:

- Further fix pg_trgm's extraction of trigrams from regular expressions.  Commit
  9e43e8714 turns out to have been insufficient: not only is it necessary to
  track tentative parent links while considering a set of arc removals, but it's
  necessary to track tentative flag additions as well.  This is because we
  always merge arc target states into arc source states; therefore, when
  considering a merge of the final state with some other, it is the other state
  that will acquire a new TSTATE_FIN bit.  If there's another arc for the same
  color trigram that would cause merging of that state with the initial state,
  we failed to recognize the problem.  The test cases for the prior commit
  evidently only exercised situations where a tentative merge with the initial
  state occurs before one with the final state.  If it goes the other way
  around, we'll happily merge the initial and final states, either producing a
  broken final graph that would never match anything, or triggering the Assert
  added by the prior commit.  It's tempting to consider switching the merge
  direction when the merge involves the final state, but I lack the time to
  analyze that idea in detail.  Instead just keep track of the flag changes that
  would result from proposed merges, in the same way that the prior commit
  tracked proposed parent links.  Along the way, add some more debugging
  support, because I'm not entirely confident that this is the last bug here.
  And tweak matters so that the file uses small integers rather
  than pointer values to identify states; that makes it more readable if you're
  just eyeballing it rather than fooling with Graphviz.  And rename a couple of
  identically named struct fields to reduce confusion.  Per report from Corey
  Csuhta.  Add a test case based on his example.  (Note: this case does not
  trigger the bug under 9.3, apparently because its different measurement of
  costs causes it to stop merging states before it hits the failure.  I spent
  some time trying to find a variant that would fail in 9.3, without success;
  but I'm sure such cases exist.) Like the previous patch, back-patch to 9.3
  where this code was added.  Report:

- Use one transaction while reading postgres.bki, not one per line.  AFAICT, the
  only actual benefit of closing a bootstrap transaction is to reclaim transient
  memory.  We can do that a lot more cheaply by just doing a MemoryContextReset
  on a suitable context.  This gets the runtime of the "bootstrap" phase of
  initdb down to the point where, at least by eyeball, it's quite negligible
  compared to the rest of the phases.  Per discussion with Andres Freund.

- Avoid passing function pointers across process boundaries.  We'd already
  recognized that we can't pass function pointers across process boundaries for
  functions in loadable modules, since a shared library could get loaded at
  different addresses in different processes.  But actually the practice doesn't
  work for functions in the core backend either, if we're using EXEC_BACKEND.
  This is the cause of recent failures on buildfarm member culicidae.  Switch to
  passing a string function name in all cases.  Something like this needs to be
  back-patched into 9.6, but let's see if the buildfarm likes it first.  Petr
  Jelinek, with a bunch of basically-cosmetic adjustments by me Discussion:

- More cleanup of manipulations of hash indexes' hasho_flag field.  Not much
  point in defining test macros for the flag bits if we don't use 'em.  Amit

- Clean up manipulations of hash indexes' hasho_flag field.  Standardize on
  testing a hash index page's type by doing (opaque->hasho_flag & LH_PAGE_TYPE) == LH_xxx_PAGE.
  Various places were taking shortcuts like opaque->hasho_flag & LH_BUCKET_PAGE
  which while not actually wrong, is still bad practice because it encourages
  use of opaque->hasho_flag & LH_UNUSED_PAGE which *is* wrong (LH_UNUSED_PAGE == 0,
  so the above is constant false).  hash_xlog.c's hash_mask() contained such an
  incorrect test.  This also ensures that we mask out the additional flag bits
  that hasho_flag has accreted since 9.6.  pgstattuple's pgstat_hash_page(), for
  one, was failing to do that and was thus actively broken.  Also fix assorted
  comments that hadn't been updated to reflect the extended usage of hasho_flag,
  and fix some macros that were testing just "(hasho_flag & bit)" to use the
  less dangerous, project-approved form "((hasho_flag & bit) != 0)".  Coverity
  found the bug in hash_mask(); I noted the one in pgstat_hash_page() through
  code reading.

- Fix erroneous cross-reference in comment.  Seems to have been introduced in
  commit c219d9b0a.  I think there indeed was a "tupbasics.h" in some early
  drafts of that refactoring, but it didn't survive into the committed version.
  Amit Kapila

- Provide a way to control SysV shmem attach address in EXEC_BACKEND builds.  In
  standard non-Windows builds, there's no particular reason to care what address
  the kernel chooses to map the shared memory segment at.  However, when
  building with EXEC_BACKEND, there's a risk that the chosen address won't be
  available in all child processes.  Linux with ASLR enabled (which it is by
  default) seems particularly at risk because it puts shmem segments into the
  same area where it maps shared libraries.  We can work around that by
  specifying a mapping address that's outside the range where shared libraries
  could get mapped.  On x86_64 Linux, 0x7e0000000000 seems to work well.  This
  is only meant for testing/debugging purposes, so it doesn't seem necessary to
  go as far as providing a GUC (or any user-visible documentation, though we
  might change that later).  Instead, it's just controlled by setting an
  environment variable PG_SHMEM_ADDR to the desired attach address.  Back-patch
  to all supported branches, since the point here is to remove intermittent
  buildfarm failures on EXEC_BACKEND animals.  Owners of affected animals will
  need to add a suitable setting of PG_SHMEM_ADDR to their build_env
  configuration.  Discussion:

- Sync addRangeTableEntryForENR() with its peer functions.
  addRangeTableEntryForENR had a check for pstate != NULL, which Coverity
  pointed out was rather useless since it'd already dereferenced pstate before
  that.  More to the point, we'd established policy in commit bc93ac12c that
  we'd require non-NULL pstate for all addRangeTableEntryFor* functions; this
  test was evidently copied-and-pasted from some older version of one of those
  functions.  Make it look more like the others.  In passing, make an elog
  message look more like the rest of the code, too.  Michael Paquier

Peter Eisentraut pushed:

- Fix whitespace.

- Support configuration reload in logical replication workers.  Author: Michael
  Paquier <michael(dot)paquier(at)gmail(dot)com> Reviewed-by: Petr Jelinek
  <petr(dot)jelinek(at)2ndquadrant(dot)com> Reported-by: Fujii Masao

- Fix typo in comment.

- Use weaker locks when updating pg_subscription_rel.  The previously used
  ShareRowExclusiveLock, while technically probably more correct, led to
  deadlocks during seemingly unrelated operations and thus a poor experience.
  Use RowExclusiveLock, like for most similar catalog operations.  In some care
  cases, the user might see an error from DDL commands.  Discussion:
  Author: Petr Jelinek <petr(dot)jelinek(at)2ndquadrant(dot)com>

- Remove some tabs in SQL code in C string literals.  This is not handled
  uniformly throughout the code, but at least nearby code can be consistent.

- doc: Tweak CSS.  Tweak CSS a bit to match latest similar changes to web site
  style.  Also move some CSS out of the HTML to the stylesheet so that the web
  site stylesheet can override it.  This should ensure that notes and such are
  back to being centered.

- pg_dump: Dump subscriptions by default.  Dump subscriptions if the current
  user is a superuser, otherwise write a warning and skip them.  Remove the
  pg_dump option --include-subscriptions.  Discussion:

- pg_dump: Always dump subscriptions NOCONNECT.  This removes the pg_dump option
  --no-subscription-connect and makes it the default.  Dumping a subscription so
  that it activates right away when restored is not very useful, because the
  state of the publication server is unclear.  Discussion:

- pg_dumpall: Allow --no-role-passwords and --binary-upgrade together.  This was
  introduced as part of the patch to add --no-role-passwords, but while it's an
  unusual combination, there is no actual reason to prevent it.

- Make header self-contained.  Add necessary include files for things used in
  the header.  (signal.h needed for sig_atomic_t.)

- pg_dump: Dump comments and security labels for publication and subscriptions.

- Remove trailing spaces in some output.  Author: Alexander Law

- Remove useless trailing spaces in queries in C strings.  Author: Alexander Law

- Remove pstrdup of TextDatumGetCString.  The result of TextDatumGetCString is
  already palloc'ed.

- Add option to modify sync commit per subscription.  This also changes default
  behaviour of subscription workers to synchronous_commit = off.  Author: Petr
  Jelinek <petr(dot)jelinek(at)2ndquadrant(dot)com>

- Fix typo in comment.

- Catversion bump.  for commit 887227a1cc861d87ca0f175cf8bd1447554090eb

- Report statistics in logical replication workers.  Author: Stas Kelvich
  <s(dot)kelvich(at)postgrespro(dot)ru> Author: Petr Jelinek <petr(dot)jelinek(at)2ndquadrant(dot)com>
  Reported-by: Fujii Masao <masao(dot)fujii(at)gmail(dot)com>

- doc: Fix typo.

Robert Haas pushed:

- Fix reporting of violations in ExecConstraints, again.  We decided in
  f1b4c771ea74f42447dccaed42ffcdcccf3aa694 to pass the original slot to
  ExecConstraints(), but that breaks when there are BEFORE ROW triggers
  involved.  So we need to do reverse-map the tuples back to the original
  descriptor instead, as Amit originally proposed.  Amit Langote, reviewed by
  Ashutosh Bapat.  One overlooked comment fixed by me.  Discussion:

- Fix possibile deadlock when dropping partitions.  heap_drop_with_catalog and
  RangeVarCallbackForDropRelation should lock the parent before locking the
  target relation.  Amit Langote Discussion:

- Fix failure when a shared tidbitmap has only one page.  Commit
  98e6e89040a0534ca26914c66cae9dd49ef62ad9 made inadequate provision for the
  case of a single-page shared tidbitmap.  It allocate space for a shared
  PagetableEntry, but failed to initialize it.  Report by Thomas Munro.  Patch
  by Dilip Kumar, with some comment changes by me.  Discussion:

- Fix confusion of max_parallel_workers mechanism following crash.  Commit
  b460f5d6693103076dc554aa7cbb96e1e53074f9 failed to contemplate the possibilit
  that a parallel worker registered before a crash would be unregistered only
  after the crash; if that happened, we'd end up with parallel_terminate_count >
  parallel_register_count and the system would refuse to launch any more
  parallel workers.  The easiest way to fix that seems to be to forget
  BGW_NEVER_RESTART workers in ResetBackgroundWorkerCrashTimes() rather than
  leaving them around to be cleaned up after the conclusion of the restart, so
  that they go away before rather than after shared memory is reset.  To make
  sure that this fix is water-tight, don't allow parallel workers to be anything
  other than BGW_NEVER_RESTART, so that after recovering from a crash, 0 is
  guaranteed to be the correct starting value for parallel_register_count.  The
  core code wouldn't do this anyway, but somebody might try to do it in
  extension code.  Report by Thomas Vondra.  Patch by me, reviewed by Kuntal
  Ghosh.  Discussion:

- Add an Assert() to max_parallel_workers enforcement.  To prevent future bugs
  along the lines of the one corrected by commit
  8ff518699f19dd0a5076f5090bac8400b8233f7f, or find any that remain in the
  current code, add an Assert() that the difference between
  parallel_register_count and parallel_terminate_count is in a sane range.
  Kuntal Ghosh, with considerable tidying-up by me, per a suggestion from Neha
  Khatri.  Reviewed by Tomas Vondra.  Discussion:

- Allow a rule on partitioned table to be renamed.  Commit
  f0e44751d7175fa3394da2c8f85e3ceb3cdbfe63 should have updated this code, but
  did not.  Amit Langote Discussion:

- Code review for c94e6942cefe7d20c5feed856e27f672734b1e2b.
  validateCheckConstraint() shouldn't try to access the storage for a
  partitioned table, because it no longer has any.  Creating a _RETURN table on
  a partitioned table shouldn't be allowed, both because there's no value in it
  and because trying to do so would involve a validation scan against its
  nonexistent storage.  Amit Langote, reviewed by Tom Lane.  Regression test
  outputs updated to pass by me.  Discussion:

- Fix pgstattuple's handling of unused hash pages.  Hash indexes can contain
  both pages which are all-zeroes (i.e.  PageIsNew()) and pages which have been
  initialized but currently aren't used.  The latter category can happen either
  when a page has been reserved but not yet used or when it is used for a time
  and then freed.  pgstattuple was only prepared to deal with the pages that are
  actually-zeroes, which it called zero_pages.  Rename the column to
  unused_pages (extension version 1.5 is as-yet-unreleased) and make it count
  both kinds of unused pages.  Along the way, slightly tidy up the way we test
  for pages of various types.  Robert Haas and Ashutosh Sharma, reviewed by Amit
  Kapila Discussion:

Andres Freund pushed:

- Fix initialization of dsa.c free area counter.  The backend local copy of
  dsa_area_control->freed_segment_counter was not properly initialized /
  maintained.  This could, if unlucky, lead to keeping attached to a segment for
  too long.  Found via valgrind bleat on buildfarm animal skink.  Author: Thomas
  Munro Discussion:

Andrew Dunstan pushed:

- Run most pg_dump and pg_dumpall tests with --no-sync.  Commit 96a7128b made
  pg_dump and pg_dumpall sync their output by default. However, there's no great
  need for that in testing, and it could impose a performance penalty, so we add
  the --no-sync flag to most of the test cases.  Michael Paquier

- Downcase "Wincrypt.h".  This is consistent with how we refer to other Windows
  include files, and prevents a failure when cross-compiling on a system with
  case sensitive file names.

- Make sure to run one initdb TAP test with no TZ set.  That way we make sure
  that initdb's time zone setting code is exercised.  This doesn't add an extra
  test, it just alters an existing test.  Discussion:

Michael Meskes pushed:

- Document that bytea is best represented as char * in C for ecpg.  Patch by
  Kato, Sho <kato-sho(at)jp(dot)fujitsu(dot)com>

Magnus Hagander pushed:

- Remove support for bcc and msvc standalone libpq builds.  This removes the
  support for building just libpq using Borland C++ or Visual C++. This has not
  worked properly for years, and given the number of complaints it's clearly not
  worth the maintenance burden.  Building libpq using the standard MSVC build
  system is of course still supported, along with mingw.

- Remove symbol WIN32_ONLY_COMPILER.  This used to mean "Visual C++ except in
  those parts where Borland C++ was supported where it meant one of those". Now
  that we don't support Borland C++ anymore, simplify by using _MSC_VER which is
  the normal way to detect Visual C++.

- Fix reversed check of return value from sync.  While at it also update the
  comments in walmethods.h to make it less likely for mistakes like this to
  appear in the future (thanks to Tom for improvements to the comments).  And
  finally, in passing change the return type of walmethod.getlasterror to being
  const, also per suggestion from Tom.

Bruce Momjian pushed:

- docs:  Improve window function docs.  Specifically, the behavior of
  general-purpose and statistical aggregates as window functions was not clearly
  documented, and terms were inconsistently used.  Also add docs about the
  difference between cume_dist and percent_rank, rather than just the formulas.
  Discussion: 20170406214918(dot)GA5757(at)momjian(dot)us

- doc: clearify pg_upgrade default copy behavior.  Reported-by: Marek
  <marek(dot)cvoren(at)gmail(dot)com> Discussion:

- git_changelog:  improve instructions for finding branch commits.
  Specifically, use '--summary' with 'git show'.

- git_changelog:  improve comment.

- docs:  update major release instructions.

- doc: add missing sect1 close tag.  Fixes commit

Fujii Masao pushed:

- Add max_sync_workers_per_subscription to postgresql.conf.sample.  This commit
  also does * add REPLICATION_SUBSCRIBERS into config_group * mark
  max_logical_replication_workers and max_sync_workers_per_subscription as
  REPLICATION_SUBSCRIBERS parameters * move those parameters into "Subscribers"
  section in postgresql.conf.sample Author: Masahiko Sawada, Petr Jelinek and me
  Reported-by: Masahiko Sawada Discussion:

- Improve tab-completion of DDL for publication and subscription.  Author:
  Masahiko Sawada Discussion:

- Improve documentations for ALTER PUBLICATION and ALTER SUBSCRIPTION.

- Move pg_stat_progress_vacuum to the table of Dynamic Statistics Views in doc.
  Previously the description about pg_stat_progress_vacuum was in the table of
  "Collected Statistics Views" in the doc. But since it repors dynamic
  information, i.e., the current progress of VACUUM, its description should be
  in the table of "Dynamic Statistics Views".  Back-patch to 9.6 where
  pg_stat_progress_vacuum was added.  Author: Amit Langote Discussion:

Simon Riggs pushed:

- Mention pg_index changes also cause relcache invalidation.  Amit Langote,
  additional line by me

Álvaro Herrera pushed:

- Remove pg_stats_ext view.  It was created as equivalent of pg_stats, but since
  the code underlying pg_statistic_ext is more convenient than the one for
  pg_statistic, pg_stats_ext is no longer useful.  Author: David Rowley
  Reviewed-by: Tomas Vondra Discussion:

- Catversion bump forgotten in previous commit.

- Fix XMLTABLE synopsis, add XMLNAMESPACES example.  Add a missing comma in the
  synopsis after the XMLNAMESPACES clause.  Also, add an example illustrating
  the use of that clause.  Author: Arjen Nienhuis and Pavel Stěhule

== Pending Patches ==

Michaël Paquier sent in another revision of a patch to use base64-based encoding
for stored and server keys in SCRAM verifiers, move the routine to build SCRAM
verifier into src/common/, refactor frontend-side random number generation,
extend PQencryptPassword with a hashing method, and extend psql's \password and
createuser to handle SCRAM.

Michaël Paquier sent in a patch to change pg_hba.conf to refer to SASL, the
thing being implemented, instead of SCRAM, one implementation of it.

Ildar Musin sent in a patch to factor out some repetitive code in RI triggers.

Peter Eisentraut sent in two revisions of a patch to fix some warnings generated
by gcc7.

David Rowley sent in a patch to allow extended stats on foreign and partitioned

Peter Eisentraut and Bruce Momjian traded patches to fix an issue around HTML
rendering in the new documentation toolchain.

Jeff Davis sent in two more revisions of a patch to implement range merge joins.

Alexander Kuzmenkov sent in a patch to implement an index-only count(*) for
indexes supporting bitmap scans.

Craig Ringer and Mithun Cy traded patches to make TAP tests run faster.

Kyotaro HORIGUCHI sent in two more revisions of a patch to fix

Amit Langote sent in three more revisions of a patch to fix how pg_dump emits
partition attributes.

Masahiko Sawada sent in another revision of a patch to make
pg_stat_replication.sync priority report NULL if in quorum-based sync
replication, and a different one to change the comments and documentation.

Takayuki Tsunakawa sent in another revision of a patch to make huge pages work
on Windows.

Craig Ringer sent in a patch to fix undefined var warnings in PostgresNode with

Dmitry Ivanov sent in a patch to fix an issue with the custom scan API.

Ashutosh Bapat sent in three more revisions of a patch to fix reporting of
violation in ExecConstraints.

Thomas Munro sent in another revision of a patch to implement [[Parallel]
Shared] Hash.

Yorick Peterse sent in another revision of a patch to document hot standby
config order mentioning all standby servers.

Michaël Paquier sent in another revision of a patch to reimplement pg_upgrade's
test as a TAP test.

Pierre Ducroquet sent in a patch to check the results of atoi in pg_basebackup
argument parsing.

Amit Langote sent in a patch to ensure that duplicate addition to publication is
a no-op.

Petr Jelínek sent in another revision of a patch to set range table for CopyFrom
in tablesync.

Petr Jelínek sent in another revision of a patch to reserve global xmin for
create slot snasphot export, ensure that on-disk snapshots are not used for
snapshot export in logical decoding, prevent snapshot builder xmin from going
backwards, fix xl_running_xacts usage in snapshot builder, and skip unnecessary
snapshot builds.

Amit Langote sent in a patch to fix a typo in partition.c.

Jeff Janes and Pavan Deolasee traded patches to fix an issue that manifested as
PANIC in pg_commit_ts slru after crashes.

Masahiko Sawada sent in a patch to fix a comment typo in xlogutils.c.

Jeff Janes sent in a patch to fix an issue that manifested as failed recovery
with the new faster 2PC code.

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