PostgreSQL Weekly News - December 13, 2020

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Subject: PostgreSQL Weekly News - December 13, 2020
Date: 2020-12-14 08:18:35
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# PostgreSQL Weekly News - December 13, 2020

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# Applied Patches

Michaël Paquier pushed:

- Fix fd leak in pg_verifybackup. An error code path newly-introduced by 87ae969
forgot to close a file descriptor when verifying a file's checksum. Per
report from Coverity, via Tom Lane.

- Avoid using tuple from syscache for update of pg_database.datfrozenxid.
pg_database.datfrozenxid gets updated using an in-place update at the end of
vacuum or autovacuum. Since 96cdeae, as pg_database has a toast relation, it
is possible for a pg_database tuple to have toast values if there is a large
set of ACLs in place. In such a case, the in-place update would fail because
of the flattening of the toast values done for the catcache entry fetched.
Instead of using a copy from the catcache, this changes the logic to fetch the
copy of the tuple by directly scanning pg_database. Per the lack of
complaints on the matter, no backpatch is done. Note that before 96cdeae,
attempting to insert such a tuple to pg_database would cause a "row is too
big" error, so the end-of-vacuum problem was not reachable. Author: Ashwin
Agrawal, Junfeng Yang Discussion:

- pgcrypto: Detect errors with EVP calls from OpenSSL. The following routines
are called within pgcrypto when handling digests but there were no checks for
failures: - EVP_MD_CTX_size (can fail with -1 as of 3.0.0) -
EVP_MD_CTX_block_size (can fail with -1 as of 3.0.0) - EVP_DigestInit_ex -
EVP_DigestUpdate - EVP_DigestFinal_ex A set of elog(ERROR) is added by this
commit to detect such failures, that should never happen except in the event
of a processing failure internal to OpenSSL. Note that it would be possible
to use ERR_reason_error_string() to get more context about such errors, but
these refer mainly to the internals of OpenSSL, so it is not really obvious
how useful that would be. This is left out for simplicity. Per report from
Coverity. Thanks to Tom Lane for the discussion. Backpatch-through: 9.5

- Simplify code for getting a unicode codepoint's canonical class. Three places
of unicode_norm.c use a similar logic for getting the combining class from a
codepoint. Commit 2991ac5 has added the function get_canonical_class() for
this purpose, but it was only called by the backend. This commit refactors
the code to use this function in all the places where the combining class is
retrieved from a given codepoint. Author: John Naylor Discussion:

- Refactor MD5 implementations according to new cryptohash infrastructure. This
commit heavily reorganizes the MD5 implementations that exist in the tree in
various aspects. First, MD5 is added to the list of options available in
cryptohash.c and cryptohash_openssl.c. This means that if building with
OpenSSL, EVP is used for MD5 instead of the fallback implementation that
Postgres had for ages. With the recent refactoring work for cryptohash
functions, this change is straight-forward. If not building with OpenSSL, a
fallback implementation internal to src/common/ is used. Second, this reduces
the number of MD5 implementations present in the tree from two to one, by
moving the KAME implementation from pgcrypto to src/common/, and by removing
the implementation that existed in src/common/. KAME was already structured
with an init/update/final set of routines by pgcrypto (see original
pgcrypto/md5.h) for compatibility with OpenSSL, so moving it to src/common/
has proved to be a straight-forward move, requiring no actual manipulation of
the internals of each routine. Some benchmarking has not shown any
performance gap between both implementations. Similarly to the fallback
implementation used for SHA2, the fallback implementation of MD5 is moved to
src/common/md5.c with an internal header called md5_int.h for the init, update
and final routines. This gets then consumed by cryptohash.c. The original
routines used for MD5-hashed passwords are moved to a separate file called
md5_common.c, also in src/common/, aimed at being shared between all MD5
implementations as utility routines to keep compatibility with any code
relying on them. Like the SHA2 changes, this commit had its round of tests on
both Linux and Windows, across all versions of OpenSSL supported on HEAD, with
and even without OpenSSL. Author: Michael Paquier Reviewed-by: Daniel
Gustafsson Discussion: [](

- Fix compilation of uuid-ossp. This module had a dependency on pgcrypto's md5.c
that got removed by b67b57a. Instead of the code from pgcrypto, this code can
just use the new cryptohash routines for MD5 as a drop-in replacement, so
let's just do this switch. This has also the merit to simplify a bit the
compilation of uuid-ossp. This requires --with-uuid to be reproduced, and I
have used e2fs as a way to reproduce the failure, then test this commit. Per
reports from buildfarm members longfin, florican and sifaka. Discussion:

Tom Lane pushed:

- pg_dump: Reorganize dumpBaseType(). Along the same lines as ed2c7f65b and
daa9fe8a5, reduce code duplication by having just one copy of the parts of the
query that are the same across all server versions; and make the conditionals
control the smallest possible amount of code. This is in preparation for
adding another dumpable field to pg_type.

- Add a couple of regression test cases related to array subscripting. Exercise
some error cases that were never reached in the existing regression tests.
This is partly for code-coverage reasons, and partly to memorialize the
current behavior in advance of planned changes for generic subscripting.
Also, I noticed that type_sanity's check to verify that all standard types
have array types was never extended when we added arrays for all system
catalog rowtypes (f7f70d5e2), nor when we added arrays over domain types
(c12d570fa). So do that. Also, since the query's expected output isn't
empty, it seems like a good idea to add an ORDER BY to make sure the result
stays stable.

- Doc: explain that the string types can't store \0 (ASCII NUL). This
restriction was mentioned in connection with string literals, but it wasn't
made clear that it's a general restriction not just a syntactic limitation in
query strings. Per unsigned documentation comment. Discussion:

- Doc: clarify that CREATE TABLE discards redundant unique constraints. The SQL
standard says that redundant unique constraints are disallowed, but we long
ago decided that throwing an error would be too user-unfriendly, so we just
drop redundant ones. The docs weren't very clear about that though, as this
behavior was only explained for PRIMARY KEY vs UNIQUE, not UNIQUE vs UNIQUE.
While here, I couldn't resist doing some copy-editing and markup-fixing on the
adjacent text about INCLUDE options. Per bug #16767 from Matthias vd Meent.
Discussion: [](

- Remove operator_precedence_warning. This GUC was always intended as a
temporary solution to help with finding 9.4-to-9.5 migration issues. Now that
all pre-9.5 branches are out of support, and 9.5 will be too before v14 is
released, it seems like it's okay to drop it. Doing so allows removal of
several hundred lines of poorly-tested code in parse_expr.c, which have been a
fertile source of bugs when people did use this. Discussion:

- Teach contain_leaked_vars that assignment SubscriptingRefs are leaky.
array_get_element and array_get_slice qualify as leakproof, since they will
silently return NULL for bogus subscripts. But array_set_element and
array_set_slice throw errors for such cases, making them clearly not
leakproof. contain_leaked_vars was evidently written with only the former
case in mind, as it gave the wrong answer for assignment SubscriptingRefs (nee
ArrayRefs). This would be a live security bug, were it not that assignment
SubscriptingRefs can only occur in INSERT and UPDATE target lists, while we
only care about leakproofness for qual expressions; so the wrong answer can't
occur in practice. Still, that's a rather shaky answer for a security-related
question; and maybe in future somebody will want to ask about leakproofness of
a tlist. So it seems wise to fix and even back-patch this correction. (We
would need some change here anyway for the upcoming generic-subscripting
patch, since extensions might make different tradeoffs about whether to throw
errors. Commit 558d77f20 attempted to lay groundwork for that by asking
check_functions_in_node whether a SubscriptingRef contains leaky functions;
but that idea fails now that the implementation methods of a SubscriptingRef
are not SQL-visible functions that could be marked leakproof or not.)
Back-patch to 9.6. While 9.5 has the same issue, the code's a bit different.
It seems quite unlikely that we'd introduce any actual bug in the short time
9.5 has left to live, so the work/risk/reward balance isn't attractive for
changing 9.5. Discussion:

- Support subscripting of arbitrary types, not only arrays. This patch
generalizes the subscripting infrastructure so that any data type can be
subscripted, if it provides a handler function to define what that means.
Traditional variable-length (varlena) arrays all use
`array_subscript_handler()`, while the existing fixed-length types that support
subscripting use `raw_array_subscript_handler()`. It's expected that other types
that want to use subscripting notation will define their own handlers. (This
patch provides no such new features, though; it only lays the foundation for
them.) To do this, move the parser's semantic processing of subscripts
(including coercion to whatever data type is required) into a method callback
supplied by the handler. On the execution side, replace the
`ExecEvalSubscriptingRef*` layer of functions with direct calls to
callback-supplied execution routines. (Thus, essentially no new run-time
overhead should be caused by this patch. Indeed, there is room to remove some
overhead by supplying specialized execution routines. This patch does a
little bit in that line, but more could be done.) Additional work is required
here and there to remove formerly hard-wired assumptions about the result
type, collation, etc of a SubscriptingRef expression node; and to remove
assumptions that the subscript values must be integers. One useful
side-effect of this is that we now have a less squishy mechanism for
identifying whether a data type is a "true" array: instead of wiring in weird
rules about typlen, we can look to see if pg_type.typsubscript ==
`F_ARRAY_SUBSCRIPT_HANDLER`. For this to be bulletproof, we have to forbid
user-defined types from using that handler directly; but there seems no good
reason for them to do so. This patch also removes assumptions that the number
of subscripts is limited to MAXDIM (6), or indeed has any hard-wired limit.
That limit still applies to types handled by `array_subscript_handler` or
`raw_array_subscript_handler`, but to discourage other dependencies on this
constant, I've moved it from c.h to utils/array.h. Dmitry Dolgov, reviewed at
various times by Tom Lane, Arthur Zakirov, Peter Eisentraut, Pavel Stehule

- Allow ALTER TYPE to update an existing type's typsubscript value. This is
essential if we'd like to allow existing extension data types to support
subscripting in future, since dropping and recreating the type isn't a
practical thing for an extension upgrade script, and direct manipulation of
pg_type isn't a great answer either. There was some discussion about also
allowing alteration of typelem, but it's less clear whether that's a good idea
or not, so for now I forebore. Discussion:

- Provide an error cursor for "can't subscript" error messages. Commit c7aba7c14
didn't add this, but after more fooling with the feature I feel that it'd be
useful. To make this possible, refactor getSubscriptingRoutines() so that the
caller is responsible for throwing any error. (In clauses.c, I just chose to
make the most conservative assumption rather than throwing an error. We don't
expect failures there anyway really, so the code space for an error message
would be a poor investment.)

- Allow subscripting of hstore values. This is basically a finger exercise to
prove that it's possible for an extension module to add subscripting ability.
Subscripted fetch from an hstore is not different from the existing "hstore ->
text" operator. Subscripted update does seem to be a little easier to use
than the traditional update method using hstore concatenation, but it's not a
fundamentally new ability. However, there may be some value in the code as
sample code, since it shows what's basically the minimum-complexity way to
implement subscripting when one needn't consider nested container objects.
Discussion: [](

Heikki Linnakangas pushed:

- Fix more race conditions in the newly-added pg_rewind test. pg_rewind looks at
the control file to check what timeline a server is on. But promotion doesn't
immediately write a checkpoint, it merely writes an end-of-recovery WAL
record. If pg_rewind runs immediately after promotion, before the checkpoint
has completed, it will think think that the server is still on the earlier
timeline. We ran into this issue a long time ago already, see commit
484a848a73f. It's a bit bogus that pg_rewind doesn't determine the timeline
correctly until the end-of-recovery checkpoint has completed. We probably
should fix that. But for now work around it by waiting for the checkpoint to
complete before running pg_rewind, like we did in commit 484a848a73f. In the
passing, tidy up the new test a little bit. Rerder the INSERTs so that the
comments make more sense, remove a spurious CHECKPOINT call after pg_rewind
has already run, and add --debug option, so that if this fails again, we'll
have more data. Per buildfarm failure at
Backpatch to all supported versions. Discussion:

Andres Freund pushed:

- jit: configure: Explicitly reference 'native' component. Until recently
'native' was implicitly included via 'orcjit', but a change included in LLVM
11 (not yet released) removed a number of such indirect component references.
Reported-By: Fabien COELHO <coelho(at)cri(dot)ensmp(dot)fr> Reported-By: Andres Freund
<andres(at)anarazel(dot)de> Reported-By: Thomas Munro <thomas(dot)munro(at)gmail(dot)com>
Author: Andres Freund <andres(at)anarazel(dot)de> Discussion:
Backpatch: 11-, where jit support was added

- jit: Correct parameter type for generated expression evaluation functions.
clang only uses the 'i1' type for scalar booleans, not for pointers to
booleans (as the pointer might be pointing into a larger memory allocation).
Therefore a pointer-to-bool needs to the "storage" boolean. There's no known
case of wrong code generation due to this, but it seems quite possible that it
could cause problems (see e.g. 72559438f92). Author: Andres Freund
Backpatch: 11-, where jit support was added

- jit: Reference function pointer types via llvmjit_types.c. It is error prone
(see 5da871bfa1b) and verbose to manually create function types. Add a helper
that can reference a function pointer type via llvmjit_types.c and and convert
existing instances of manual creation. Author: Andres Freund
<andres(at)anarazel(dot)de> Reviewed-By: Tom Lane <tgl(at)sss(dot)pgh(dot)pa(dot)us> Discussion:

Fujii Masao pushed:

- Bump catversion for pg_stat_wal changes. Oversight in 01469241b2.
Reported-by: Andres Freund Discussion:

- Speed up rechecking if relation needs to be vacuumed or analyze in autovacuum.
After autovacuum collects the relations to vacuum or analyze, it rechecks
whether each relation still needs to be vacuumed or analyzed before actually
doing that. Previously this recheck could be a significant overhead especially
when there were a very large number of relations. This was because each
recheck forced the statistics to be refreshed, and the refresh of the
statistics for a very large number of relations could cause heavy overhead.
There was the report that this issue caused autovacuum workers to have gotten
“stuck” in a tight loop of table_recheck_autovac() that rechecks whether a
relation needs to be vacuumed or analyzed. This commit speeds up the recheck
by making autovacuum worker reuse the previously-read statistics for the
recheck if possible. Then if that "stale" statistics says that a relation
still needs to be vacuumed or analyzed, autovacuum refreshes the statistics
and does the recheck again. The benchmark shows that the more relations exist
and autovacuum workers are running concurrently, the more this change reduces
the autovacuum execution time. For example, when there are 20,000 tables and
10 autovacuum workers are running, the benchmark showed that the change
improved the performance of autovacuum more than three times. On the other
hand, even when there are only 1000 tables and only a single autovacuum worker
is running, the benchmark didn't show any big performance regression by the
change. Firstly POC patch was proposed by Jim Nasby. As the result of
discussion, we used Tatsuhito Kasahara's version of the patch using the
approach suggested by Tom Lane. Reported-by: Jim Nasby Author: Tatsuhito
Kasahara Reviewed-by: Masahiko Sawada, Fujii Masao Discussion:

Dean Rasheed pushed:

- Improve estimation of OR clauses using multiple extended statistics. When
estimating an OR clause using multiple extended statistics objects, treat the
estimates for each set of clauses for each statistics object as independent of
one another. The overlap estimates produced for each statistics object do not
apply to clauses covered by other statistics objects. Dean Rasheed, reviewed
by Tomas Vondra. Discussion:

- Improve estimation of ANDs under ORs using extended statistics. Formerly,
extended statistics only handled clauses that were RestrictInfos. However, the
restrictinfo machinery doesn't create sub-AND RestrictInfos for AND clauses
underneath OR clauses. Therefore teach extended statistics to handle bare AND
clauses, looking for compatible RestrictInfo clauses underneath them. Dean
Rasheed, reviewed by Tomas Vondra. Discussion:

Peter Eisentraut pushed:

- Change get_constraint_index() to use pg_constraint.conindid. It was still
using a scan of pg_depend instead of using the conindid column that has been
added since. Since it is now just a catalog lookup wrapper and not related to
pg_depend, move from pg_depend.c to lsyscache.c. Reviewed-by: Matthias van de
Meent <boekewurm+postgres(at)gmail(dot)com> Reviewed-by: Tom Lane <tgl(at)sss(dot)pgh(dot)pa(dot)us>
Reviewed-by: Michael Paquier <michael(at)paquier(dot)xyz> Discussion:

- pg_dump: Don't use enums for defining bit mask values. This usage would mean
that values of the enum type are potentially not one of the enum values. Use
macros instead, like everywhere else. Discussion:

Bruce Momjian pushed:

- initdb: properly alphabetize getopt_long options in C string.
Backpatch-through: 9.5

- initdb: complete getopt_long alphabetization. Backpatch-through: 9.5

Noah Misch pushed:

- Correct behavior descriptions in comments, and correct a test name.

- Use HASH_BLOBS for xidhash. This caused BufFile errors on buildfarm member
sungazer, and SIGSEGV was possible. Conditions for reaching those symptoms
were more frequent on big-endian systems. Discussion:

# Pending Patches

Bharath Rupireddy sent in a patch to allow parallel mode in REFRESH MATERIALIZED
VIEW planning.

James Coleman sent in a patch to allow parallel LATERAL subqueries with

Peter Eisentraut sent in a WIP patch to fix temp-install tests to work with
macOS SIP.

Pavel Stěhule sent in another revision of a patch to add a unistr function which
evaluates various forms of unicode-escaped characters.

Bruce Momjian sent in two more revisions of a patch to implement key management
for PostgreSQL.

Justin Pryzby sent in two more revisions of a patch to pg_dump which causes it
to output separate "object" for ALTER TABLE..ATTACH PARTITION.

Peter Eisentraut sent in a patch to convert elog(LOG) calls to ereport() where

David Zhang sent in two more revisions of a patch to add table access method as
an option to pgbench.

Ajin Cherian and Peter Smith traded patches to add two-phase transactions to
logical decoding.

Amit Langote, Kyotaro HORIGUCHI, and Keisuke Kuroda traded patches to fix a bug
than manifested as huge memory consumption on partitioned tables with foreign

Dean Rasheed sent in two more revisions of a patch to make OR clauses use
extended statistics.

Peter Eisentraut sent in two revisions of a patch to remove gratuitous uses of
deprecated SELECT INTO, and clarify status of SELECT INTO on the reference page.

Takayuki Tsunakawa sent in two revisions of a patch to fix a bug that manifested
as ALTER TABLE SET LOGGED/UNLOGGED on a partitioned table does nothing silently.

Takamichi Osumi sent in another revision of a patch to add an option to disable
WAL logging to speed up data loading.

Julien Rouhaud sent in a patch to add a new COLLATION option to REINDEX, which
can be used to filter the list of indexes to rebuild. This is handy for times
when system collation gets updated.

Daniel Gustafsson sent in another revision of a patch to support page checksum
enable/disable in a running cluster.

Peter Eisentraut sent in a patch to remove unnecessary grammar symbols.

Thomas Munro sent in a WIP patch to use Github Actions for CI.

Bharath Rupireddy sent in three more revisions of a patch to two add new
functions: pg_terminate_backend(pid, wait, timeout), which terminates and waits
or times out for a given backend, and pg_wait_backend(pid, timeout), which
checks the existence of the backend with a given PID and waits or times out
until it goes away.

Pavel Borisov sent in two more revisions of a patch to implement covering SPGiST

Jeff Davis sent in a patch to ensure that the format is sent along with the type
in walsender.

Craig Ringer sent in another revision of a patch to replace CLOBBER_CACHE_ALWAYS
with a new GUC, debug_clobber_cache_depth.

Amit Kapila and Peter Smith traded patches to speed up throughput in logical
replication's tablesync.

Kirk Jamison sent in two more revisions of a patch to prevent invalidating
blocks in smgrextend() during recovery, add a bool param in smgrnblocks() for
cached blocks to ensures that we return a reliable value from smgrnblocks, make
DropRelFileNodeBuffers() more efficient during recovery by avoiding scanning the
whole buffer pool when the relation is small enough, or the the total number of
blocks to be invalidated is below the threshold of full scanning, and make
DropRelFileNodesAllBuffers() more efficient in recovery by skipping the
time-consuming scan of the whole buffer pool during recovery when the relation
is small enough, or when the number of blocks to be invalidated is below the
full scan threshold.

Tomáš Vondra sent in two more revisions of a patch to make it possible to use
extended statistics on expressions.

Nathan Bossart and Michaël Paquier traded patches to add the
checkpoint/restartpoint status to ps display.

Laurenz Albe sent in two more revisions of a patch to add session statistics to

Julien Rouhaud sent in two revisions of a patch to add a bool toplevel column to

Tom Lane sent in a patch to remove operator_precedence_warning.

Antonin Houska sent in another revision of a patch to clean up orphaned files
using undo logs.

Joel Jacobson sen in three revisions of a patch to add support for
leading/trailing bytea trim()ing.

David Rowley sent in two more revisions of a patch to allow
estimate_num_groups() to pass back further details about the estimation, allow
users of simplehash.h to perform direct deletions, add a Result Cache executor
node, remove some code duplication in nodeResultCache.c, and use a Result Cache
node to cache results from subplans.

Greg Nancarrow sent in two more revisions of a patch to add new configuration
parameter "disable_event_triggers", and add a new "client_connection" event,
supporting a "logon trigger".

Bharath Rupireddy sent in another revision of a patch to add a postgres_fdw
function to discard cached connections, add a add keep_connections GUC to the
postgres_fdw to avoid caching connections, and add a postgres_fdw server-level
option, keep_connection to not cache connections.

Peter Eisentraut sent in a patch to change the definitions of bitmap flags to
bit-shifting style.

Nathan Bossart sent in three more revisions of a patch to add a SPREAD option to

Justin Pryzby sent in a patch to make the changes to pg_upgrade/ that are
needed to allow testing upgrade from v11, and adds a pg_upgrade test to exercise
binary compatibility.

Amit Langote sent in another revision of a patch to set
ForeignScanState.resultRelInfo lazily, set ResultRelInfo.ri_PartitionRoot in all
result relations, not just those that are targets of tuple routing, and
initialize result relation information lazily.

Vigneshwaran C sent in a patch to add some copy-related data structures to
typedefs.list which were were added during the split of copy into smaller files.

Peter Eisentraut sent in another revision of a patch to add primary keys and
unique constraints to system catalogs.

Vigneshwaran C sent in another revision of a patch to make it possible to run
COPY FROM with multiple workers.

Andrey Borodin sent in two more revisions of a patch to add functions to
'pageinspect' to inspect GiST indexes.

Bharath Rupireddy sent in three more revisions of a patch to make it possible to
use parallel inserts in CTAS, and make some adjustments to tuple costs for this

Stephen Frost sent in two revisions of a patch to change the default
checkpoint_completion_target to 0.9.

Greg Nancarrow sent in three more revisions of a patch to make it possible to
parallelize parts of INSERT ... SELECT.

Rémi Lapeyre sent in another revision of a patch to add header support to the
"COPY" text format.

Alexander Korotkov sent in another revision of a patch to support multiranges.

Takamichi Osumi sent in another revision of a patch to implement a stronger
safeguard for archive recovery to ensure that it does not miss data.

Vigneshwaran C sent in another revision of a patch to print backtraces of
postgres process that are part of the instance current instance.

Gilles Darold sent in a patch to add three hooks at the XactCommand level:
start_xact_command_hook, called at end of start_xact_command(),
finish_xact_command, called in finish_xact_command() just before
CommitTransactionCommand(), and abort_current_transaction_hook, called after an
error is encountered at end of AbortCurrentTransaction().

Masahiro Ikeda sent in two revisions of a patch to to add WAL write/fsync
statistics to the pg_stat_wal view.

Denis Smirnov sent in a PoC patch to refactor the AM analyse API.

Bharath Rupireddy sent in a patch to add table Access Methods for Multi and
Single Inserts.

Andrey Borodin and Gilles Darold traded patches to use a shared lock rather than
an exclusive lock in GetMultiXactIdMembers for offsets and members, make
MultiXact local cache size configurable, add a condition variable to wait for
the next MultXact offset in a corner case, and add GUCs to tune MultiXact SLRUs.

Hou Zhijie sent in a patch to fix a typo about generate_gather_paths.

Shinya Kato sent in a patch to improve psql's tab completion for CLOSE, FETCH,
and MOVE.

Michaël Paquier sent in a patch intended to fix a bug that manifested as
occasional tablespace.sql failures in check-world -jnn by arranging for
pg_regress to clean out the test tablespace dir, or create it if it doesn't
exist on all platforms.

Kyotaro HORIGUCHI sent in a patch to add a new test to detect a replication bug,
and ensure that WalSndSegmentOpen tracks a timeline switch while sending a
historic timeline running physical replication.

Andrey Borodin sent in another revision of a patch to make it possible to
disallow cancelation of syncronous commit.

Zeng Wenjing sent in another revision of a patch to implement global temporary

Dilip Kumar sent in another revision of a patch to implement custom compression
methods for tables, including ways to change them on the fly.

Fujii Masao sent in another revision of a patch to add a stats_reset time to

Justin Pryzby sent in another revision of a patch to `make pg_ls_*()` show
directories and shared filesets.

Justin Pryzby sent in a patch to add an INCLUDING ACCESS METHOD option to CREATE

Chen Hujaun sent in another revision of a patch to make it possible to compress
pages for OLTP.

Andrey Borodin sent in another revision of a patch to speed up the pglz
compression code by converting some macro-functions to regular functions and
using a more compact hash table, along with some other optimizations.

Atsushi Torikoshi sent in another revision of a patch to implement
pg_get_target_backend_memory_contexts(), which is able to collect arbitrary
backend process's memory contexts.

Peter Geoghegan sent in another revision of a patch to pass down a "logically
unchanged index" hint, and use same to add bottom-up index deletion.

Dilip Kumar sent in another revision of a patch to ensure that
pg_is_wal_replay_paused waits for recovery to pause.

Daniel Gustafsson sent in a patch to move the information callback earlier in
TLS negotiation to capture the connection. The callback for retrieving state
change information during connection setup was only installed when the
connection was mostly set up, and thus didn't provide much information. This
also extends the callback with printing detailed information about the state

Peter Eisentraut sent in a patch to allow a GRANTED BY clause in normal GRANT
and REVOKE statements, per the SQL standard.

Stephen Frost sent in a patch intended to fix a bug that manifested as
autovacuum worker doesn't immediately exit on postmaster death by replacing some
system calls with a WaitLatch.

Bharath Rupireddy sent in a patch to fail fast in CTAS/CMV if relation already

Lukas Meisegeier sent in a patch to add an ssltermination parameter for
SNI-based load balancing.

Amit Kapila sent in a patch to speed up xor'ing two gist index signatures for
tsvectors by using popcount64 on each of the chunks, and avoid a function
pointer dereference for calls to pg_popcount32/64().

Kyotaro HORIGUCHI sent in another revision of a patch to rework the stats
collector to use shared memory instead of files for temporary storage.

Kyotaro HORIGUCHI sent in a patch to fix the documentation for
pg_shmem_allocations by mentioning that it's NULL for anonymous allocations.

Peter Eisentraut sent in a patch to clean up an ancient test style.
Tests were written similar to
where the first column indicated the number of expected result rows.
To clean this up, remove all those extra columns.

Tom Lane sent in two revisions of a patch to rework PL/pgsql's assignment
implementation to use more of what's in core.

Peter Eisentraut and Justin Pryzby traded patches to allow CLUSTER, VACUUM FULL
and REINDEX to change tablespace on the fly.

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