On Thu, 2010-12-30 at 18:42 +0100, Stefan Kaltenbrunner wrote:
> it would help if this would just be a simple text-only description of
> the design that people can actually comment on inline. I don't think
> sending technical design proposals as a pdf (which seems to be written
> in doc-style as well) is a good idea to encourage discussion on -hackers :(
25.2.6. Synchronous Replication
Streaming replication is by default asynchronous. Transactions on the
primary server write commit records to WAL, yet do not know whether or
when a standby has received and processed those changes. So with
asynchronous replication, if the primary crashes, transactions committed
on the primary might not have been received by any standby. As a result,
failover from primary to standby could cause data loss because
transaction completions are absent, relative to the primary. The amount
of data loss is proportional to the replication delay at the time of
Synchronous replication offers the ability to guarantee that all changes
made by a transaction have been transferred to at least one remote
standby server. This is an extension to the standard level of durability
offered by a transaction commit. This is referred to as semi-synchronous
When synchronous replication is requested, the commit of a write
transaction will wait until confirmation that the commit record has been
transferred successfully to at least one standby server. Waiting for
confirmation increases the user's confidence that the changes will not
be lost in the event of server crashes but it also necessarily increases
the response time for the requesting transaction. The minimum wait time
is the roundtrip time from primary to standby.
Read only transactions and transaction rollbacks need not wait for
replies from standby servers. Subtransaction commits do not wait for
responses from standby servers, only final top-level commits. Long
running actions such as data loading or index building do not wait until
the very final commit message.
18.104.22.168. Basic Configuration
Synchronous replication must be enabled on both the primary and at least
one standby server. If synchronous replication is disabled on the
master, or enabled on the primary but not enabled on any slaves, the
primary will use asynchronous replication by default.
We use a single parameter to enable synchronous replication, set in
postgresql.conf on both primary and standby servers:
synchronous_replication = off (default) | on
On the primary, synchronous_replication can be set for particular users
or databases, or dynamically by applications programs.
If more than one standby server specifies synchronous_replication, then
whichever standby replies first will release waiting commits.
Turning this setting off for a standby allows the administrator to
exclude certain standby servers from releasing waiting transactions.
This is useful if not all standby servers are designated as potential
future primary servers. On the standby, this parameter only takes effect
at server start.
22.214.171.124. Planning for Performance
Synchronous replication usually requires carefully planned and placed
standby servers to ensure applications perform acceptably. Waiting
doesn't utilise system resources, but transaction locks continue to be
held until the transfer is confirmed. As a result, incautious use of
synchronous replication will reduce performance for database
applications because of increased response times and higher contention.
PostgreSQL allows the application developer to specify the durability
level required via replication. This can be specified for the system
overall, though it can also be specified for specific users or
connections, or even individual transactions.
For example, an application workload might consist of: 10% of changes
are important customer details, while 90% of changes are less important
data that the business can more easily survive if it is lost, such as
chat messages between users.
With synchronous replication options specified at the application level
(on the master) we can offer sync rep for the most important changes,
without slowing down the bulk of the total workload. Application level
options are an important and practical tool for allowing the benefits of
synchronous replication for high performance applications. This feature
is unique to PostgreSQL.
126.96.36.199. Planning for High Availability
The easiest and safest method of gaining High Availability using
synchronous replication is to configure at least two standby servers. To
understand why, we need to examine what can happen when you lose all
Commits made when synchronous_replication is set will wait until at
least one standby responds. The response may never occur if the last, or
only, standby should crash or the network drops. What should we do in
Sitting and waiting will typically cause operational problems because it
is an effective outage of the primary server. Allowing the primary
server to continue processing in the absence of a standby puts those
latest data changes at risk. How we handle this situation is controlled
by allow_standalone_primary. The default setting is on, allowing
processing to continue, though there is no recommended setting. Choosing
the best setting for allow_standalone_primary is a difficult decision
and best left to those with combined business responsibility for both
data and applications. The difficulty of this choice is the reason why
we recommend that you reduce the possibility of this situation occurring
by using multiple standby servers.
When the primary is started with allow_standalone_primary enabled, the
primary will not allow connections until a standby connects that also
has synchronous_replication enabled. This is a convenience to ensure
that we don't allow connections before write transactions will return
When allow_standalone_primary is set, a user will stop waiting once the
replication_timeout has been reached for their specific session. Users
are not waiting for a specific standby to reply, they are waiting for a
reply from any standby, so the unavailability of any one standby is not
significant to a user. It is possible for user sessions to hit timeout
even though standbys are communicating normally. In that case, the
setting of replication_timeout is probably too low.
The standby sends regular status messages to the primary. If no status
messages have been received for replication_timeout the primary server
will assume the connection is dead and terminate it. This happens
whatever the setting of allow_standalone_primary.
If primary crashes while commits are waiting for acknowledgement, those
transactions will be marked fully committed if the primary database
recovers, no matter how allow_standalone_primary is set. There is no way
to be certain that all standbys have received all outstanding WAL data
at time of the crash of the primary. Some transactions may not show as
committed on the standby, even though they show as committed on the
primary. The guarantee we offer is that the application will not receive
explicit acknowledgement of the successful commit of a transaction until
the WAL data is known to be safely received by the standby. Hence this
mechanism is technically "semi synchronous" rather than "fully
synchronous" replication. Note that replication still not be fully
synchronous even if we wait for all standby servers, though this would
reduce availability, as described previously.
If you need to re-create a standby server while transactions are
waiting, make sure that the commands to run pg_start_backup() and
pg_stop_backup() are run in a session with synchronous_replication =
off, otherwise those requests will wait forever for the standby to
18.5.5. Synchronous Replication
These settings control the behavior of the built-in synchronous
replication feature. These parameters would be set on the primary server
that is to send replication data to one or more standby servers.
Specifies whether transaction commit will wait for WAL records
to be replicated before the command returns a "success"
indication to the client. The default setting is off. When on,
there will be a delay while the client waits for confirmation of
successful replication. That delay will increase depending upon
the physical distance and network activity between primary and
standby. The commit wait will last until the first reply from
any standby. Multiple standby servers allow increased
availability and possibly increase performance as well.
The parameter must be set on both primary and standby.
On the primary, this parameter can be changed at any time; the
behavior for any one transaction is determined by the setting in
effect when it commits. It is therefore possible, and useful, to
have some transactions replicate synchronously and others
asynchronously. For example, to make a single multistatement
transaction commit asynchronously when the default is
synchronous replication, issue SET LOCAL synchronous_replication
TO OFF within the transaction.
On the standby, the parameter value is taken only at server
If the client has synchronous_replication set, and
allow_standalone_primary is also set, then the commit will wait
for up to synchronous_replication_timeout milliseconds before it
returns a "success", or will wait forever if
synchronous_replication_timeout is set to -1.
If a standby server does not reply for
synchronous_replication_timeout the primary will terminate the
If allow_standalone_primary is not set, then the server will not
allow connections until a standby connects that has
allow_standalone_primary also affects the behaviour when the
synchronous_replication_timeout is reached.
25.5.2. Handling query conflicts
Remedial possibilities exist if the number of standby-query
cancellations is found to be unacceptable. Typically the best option is
to enable hot_standby_feedback. This prevents VACUUM from removing
recently-dead rows and so cleanup conflicts do not occur. If you do
this, you should note that this will delay cleanup of dead rows on the
primary, which may result in undesirable table bloat. However, the
cleanup situation will be no worse than if the standby queries were
running directly on the primary server. You are still getting the
benefit of off-loading execution onto the standby and the query may
complete faster than it would have done on the primary server.
max_standby_archive_delay must be kept large in this case, because
delayed WAL files might already contain entries that conflict with the
desired standby queries.
18.5.6. Standby Servers
These settings control the behavior of a standby server that is to
receive replication data.
Specifies whether or not you can connect and run queries during
recovery, as described in Section 25.5. The default value is
off. This parameter can only be set at server start. It only has
effect during archive recovery or in standby mode.
Specifies whether or not a hot standby will send feedback to the
primary about queries currently executing on the standby. This
parameter can be used to eliminate query cancels caused by
cleanup records, though it can cause database bloat on the
primary for some workloads. The default value is off. This
parameter can only be set at server start. It only has effect if
hot_standby is enabled.
Simon Riggs http://www.2ndQuadrant.com/books/
PostgreSQL Development, 24x7 Support, Training and Services
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