Geometric data types represent two-dimensional spatial objects. Table 8.20 shows the geometric types available in PostgreSQL.

**Table 8.20. Geometric
Types**

Name | Storage Size | Description | Representation |
---|---|---|---|

`point` |
16 bytes | Point on a plane | (x,y) |

`line` |
32 bytes | Infinite line | {A,B,C} |

`lseg` |
32 bytes | Finite line segment | ((x1,y1),(x2,y2)) |

`box` |
32 bytes | Rectangular box | ((x1,y1),(x2,y2)) |

`path` |
16+16n bytes | Closed path (similar to polygon) | ((x1,y1),...) |

`path` |
16+16n bytes | Open path | [(x1,y1),...] |

`polygon` |
40+16n bytes | Polygon (similar to closed path) | ((x1,y1),...) |

`circle` |
24 bytes | Circle | <(x,y),r> (center point and radius) |

A rich set of functions and operators is available to perform various geometric operations such as scaling, translation, rotation, and determining intersections. They are explained in Section 9.11.

Points are the fundamental two-dimensional building block
for geometric types. Values of type `point`

are specified using either of the following
syntaxes:

(,`x`

)`y`

,`x`

`y`

where * x* and

`y`

Points are output using the first syntax.

Lines are represented by the linear equation * A*x +

`B`

`C`

`A`

`B`

`line`

are input and output in the
following form:{,`A`

,`B`

}`C`

Alternatively, any of the following forms can be used for input:

[ (,`x1`

) , (`y1`

,`x2`

) ] ( (`y2`

,`x1`

) , (`y1`

,`x2`

) ) (`y2`

,`x1`

) , (`y1`

,`x2`

)`y2`

,`x1`

,`y1`

,`x2`

`y2`

where `(`

and * x1*,

`y1`

`(``x2`

,`y2`

)

are two different
points on the line.Line segments are represented by pairs of points that are
the endpoints of the segment. Values of type `lseg`

are specified using any of the following
syntaxes:

[ (,`x1`

) , (`y1`

,`x2`

) ] ( (`y2`

,`x1`

) , (`y1`

,`x2`

) ) (`y2`

,`x1`

) , (`y1`

,`x2`

)`y2`

,`x1`

,`y1`

,`x2`

`y2`

where `(`

and * x1*,

`y1`

`(``x2`

,`y2`

)

are the end points
of the line segment.Line segments are output using the first syntax.

Boxes are represented by pairs of points that are opposite
corners of the box. Values of type `box`

are specified using any of the following
syntaxes:

( (,`x1`

) , (`y1`

,`x2`

) ) (`y2`

,`x1`

) , (`y1`

,`x2`

)`y2`

,`x1`

,`y1`

,`x2`

`y2`

where `(`

and * x1*,

`y1`

`(``x2`

,`y2`

)

are any two opposite
corners of the box.Boxes are output using the second syntax.

Any two opposite corners can be supplied on input, but the values will be reordered as needed to store the upper right and lower left corners, in that order.

Paths are represented by lists of connected points. Paths
can be *open*, where the first and
last points in the list are considered not connected, or
*closed*, where the first and last
points are considered connected.

Values of type `path`

are specified
using any of the following syntaxes:

[ (,`x1`

) , ... , (`y1`

,`xn`

) ] ( (`yn`

,`x1`

) , ... , (`y1`

,`xn`

) ) (`yn`

,`x1`

) , ... , (`y1`

,`xn`

) (`yn`

,`x1`

, ... ,`y1`

,`xn`

)`yn`

,`x1`

, ... ,`y1`

,`xn`

`yn`

where the points are the end points of the line segments
comprising the path. Square brackets (`[]`

) indicate an open path, while parentheses
(`()`

) indicate a closed path. When
the outermost parentheses are omitted, as in the third through
fifth syntaxes, a closed path is assumed.

Paths are output using the first or second syntax, as appropriate.

Polygons are represented by lists of points (the vertexes of the polygon). Polygons are very similar to closed paths, but are stored differently and have their own set of support routines.

Values of type `polygon`

are
specified using any of the following syntaxes:

( (,`x1`

) , ... , (`y1`

,`xn`

) ) (`yn`

,`x1`

) , ... , (`y1`

,`xn`

) (`yn`

,`x1`

, ... ,`y1`

,`xn`

)`yn`

,`x1`

, ... ,`y1`

,`xn`

`yn`

where the points are the end points of the line segments comprising the boundary of the polygon.

Polygons are output using the first syntax.

Circles are represented by a center point and radius. Values
of type `circle`

are specified using
any of the following syntaxes:

< (,`x`

) ,`y`

> ( (`r`

,`x`

) ,`y`

) (`r`

,`x`

) ,`y`

`r`

,`x`

,`y`

`r`

where `(`

is the center point
and * x*,

`y`

`r`

Circles are output using the first syntax.

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