The xml2 module provides XPath querying and XSLT functionality.
From PostgreSQL 8.3 on,
there is XML-related functionality based on the SQL/XML
standard in the core server. That functionality covers XML
syntax checking and XPath queries, which is what this module
does, and more, but the API is not at all compatible. It is
planned that this module will be removed in a future version of
PostgreSQL in favor of the newer standard API, so you are
encouraged to try converting your applications. If you find
that some of the functionality of this module is not available
in an adequate form with the newer API, please explain your
so that the deficiency can be addressed.
Table F-33 shows the functions provided by this module. These functions provide straightforward XML parsing and XPath queries. All arguments are of type text, so for brevity that is not shown.
Table F-33. Functions
This parses the document text in its parameter and
returns true if the document is well-formed XML.
(Note: before PostgreSQL 8.2, this function was
These functions evaluate the XPath query on the supplied document, and cast the result to the specified type.
This evaluates query on document and wraps the result in XML tags. If the result is multivalued, the output will look like:
<toptag> <itemtag>Value 1 which could be an XML fragment</itemtag> <itemtag>Value 2....</itemtag> </toptag>
If either toptag or itemtag is an empty string, the relevant tag is omitted.
This function returns multiple values separated by the specified separator, for example Value 1,Value 2,Value 3 if separator is ,.
||text||This is a wrapper for the above function that uses , as the separator.|
xpath_table(text key, text document, text relation, text xpaths, text criteria) returns setof record
xpath_table is a table
function that evaluates a set of XPath queries on each of a set
of documents and returns the results as a table. The primary
key field from the original document table is returned as the
first column of the result so that the result set can readily
be used in joins. The parameters are described in Table F-34.
the name of the "key" field — this is just a field to be used as the first column of the output table, i.e., it identifies the record from which each output row came (see note below about multiple values)
the name of the field containing the XML document
the name of the table or view containing the documents
one or more XPath expressions, separated by |
the contents of the WHERE clause. This cannot be omitted, so use true or 1=1 if you want to process all the rows in the relation
These parameters (except the XPath strings) are just substituted into a plain SQL SELECT statement, so you have some flexibility — the statement is
SELECT <key>, <document> FROM <relation> WHERE <criteria>
so those parameters can be anything valid in those particular locations. The result from this SELECT needs to return exactly two columns (which it will unless you try to list multiple fields for key or document). Beware that this simplistic approach requires that you validate any user-supplied values to avoid SQL injection attacks.
The function has to be used in a FROM expression, with an AS clause to specify the output columns; for example
SELECT * FROM xpath_table('article_id', 'article_xml', 'articles', '/article/author|/article/pages|/article/title', 'date_entered > ''2003-01-01'' ') AS t(article_id integer, author text, page_count integer, title text);
The AS clause defines the names and types of the columns in the output table. The first is the "key" field and the rest correspond to the XPath queries. If there are more XPath queries than result columns, the extra queries will be ignored. If there are more result columns than XPath queries, the extra columns will be NULL.
Notice that this example defines the page_count result column as an integer. The function deals internally with string representations, so when you say you want an integer in the output, it will take the string representation of the XPath result and use PostgreSQL input functions to transform it into an integer (or whatever type the AS clause requests). An error will result if it can't do this — for example if the result is empty — so you may wish to just stick to text as the column type if you think your data has any problems.
The calling SELECT statement doesn't necessarily have be just SELECT * — it can reference the output columns by name or join them to other tables. The function produces a virtual table with which you can perform any operation you wish (e.g. aggregation, joining, sorting etc). So we could also have:
SELECT t.title, p.fullname, p.email FROM xpath_table('article_id', 'article_xml', 'articles', '/article/title|/article/author/@id', 'xpath_string(article_xml,''/article/@date'') > ''2003-03-20'' ') AS t(article_id integer, title text, author_id integer), tblPeopleInfo AS p WHERE t.author_id = p.person_id;
as a more complicated example. Of course, you could wrap all of this in a view for convenience.
assumes that the results of each XPath query might be
multivalued, so the number of rows returned by the function
may not be the same as the number of input documents. The
first row returned contains the first result from each query,
the second row the second result from each query. If one of
the queries has fewer values than the others, null values
will be returned instead.
In some cases, a user will know that a given XPath query will return only a single result (perhaps a unique document identifier) — if used alongside an XPath query returning multiple results, the single-valued result will appear only on the first row of the result. The solution to this is to use the key field as part of a join against a simpler XPath query. As an example:
CREATE TABLE test ( id int PRIMARY KEY, xml text ); INSERT INTO test VALUES (1, '<doc num="C1"> <line num="L1"><a>1</a><b>2</b><c>3</c></line> <line num="L2"><a>11</a><b>22</b><c>33</c></line> </doc>'); INSERT INTO test VALUES (2, '<doc num="C2"> <line num="L1"><a>111</a><b>222</b><c>333</c></line> <line num="L2"><a>111</a><b>222</b><c>333</c></line> </doc>'); SELECT * FROM xpath_table('id','xml','test', '/doc/@num|/doc/line/@num|/doc/line/a|/doc/line/b|/doc/line/c', 'true') AS t(id int, doc_num varchar(10), line_num varchar(10), val1 int, val2 int, val3 int) WHERE id = 1 ORDER BY doc_num, line_num id | doc_num | line_num | val1 | val2 | val3 ----+---------+----------+------+------+------ 1 | C1 | L1 | 1 | 2 | 3 1 | | L2 | 11 | 22 | 33
To get doc_num on every line, the
solution is to use two invocations of
xpath_table and join the results:
SELECT t.*,i.doc_num FROM xpath_table('id', 'xml', 'test', '/doc/line/@num|/doc/line/a|/doc/line/b|/doc/line/c', 'true') AS t(id int, line_num varchar(10), val1 int, val2 int, val3 int), xpath_table('id', 'xml', 'test', '/doc/@num', 'true') AS i(id int, doc_num varchar(10)) WHERE i.id=t.id AND i.id=1 ORDER BY doc_num, line_num; id | line_num | val1 | val2 | val3 | doc_num ----+----------+------+------+------+--------- 1 | L1 | 1 | 2 | 3 | C1 1 | L2 | 11 | 22 | 33 | C1 (2 rows)
The following functions are available if libxslt is installed:
xslt_process(text document, text stylesheet, text paramlist) returns text
This function applies the XSL stylesheet to the document and returns the transformed result. The paramlist is a list of parameter assignments to be used in the transformation, specified in the form a=1,b=2. Note that the parameter parsing is very simple-minded: parameter values cannot contain commas!
There is also a two-parameter version of
xslt_process which does not pass any
parameters to the transformation.
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