ANALYZE — collect statistics about a database
ANALYZE [ (
option[, ...] ) ] [
table_and_columns[, ...] ] ANALYZE [ VERBOSE ] [
table_and_columns[, ...] ] where
optioncan be one of: VERBOSE [
boolean] SKIP_LOCKED [
column_name[, ...] ) ]
ANALYZE collects statistics about the contents of tables in the database, and stores the results in the
pg_statistic system catalog. Subsequently, the query planner uses these statistics to help determine the most efficient execution plans for queries.
ANALYZE processes every table and materialized view in the current database that the current user has permission to analyze. With a list,
ANALYZE processes only those table(s). It is further possible to give a list of column names for a table, in which case only the statistics for those columns are collected.
When the option list is surrounded by parentheses, the options can be written in any order. The parenthesized syntax was added in PostgreSQL 11; the unparenthesized syntax is deprecated.
Enables display of progress messages.
ANALYZE should not wait for any conflicting locks to be released when beginning work on a relation: if a relation cannot be locked immediately without waiting, the relation is skipped. Note that even with this option,
ANALYZE may still block when opening the relation's indexes or when acquiring sample rows from partitions, table inheritance children, and some types of foreign tables. Also, while
ANALYZE ordinarily processes all partitions of specified partitioned tables, this option will cause
ANALYZE to skip all partitions if there is a conflicting lock on the partitioned table.
Specifies whether the selected option should be turned on or off. You can write
1 to enable the option, and
0 to disable it. The
boolean value can also be omitted, in which case
TRUE is assumed.
The name (possibly schema-qualified) of a specific table to analyze. If omitted, all regular tables, partitioned tables, and materialized views in the current database are analyzed (but not foreign tables). If the specified table is a partitioned table, both the inheritance statistics of the partitioned table as a whole and statistics of the individual partitions are updated.
The name of a specific column to analyze. Defaults to all columns.
VERBOSE is specified,
ANALYZE emits progress messages to indicate which table is currently being processed. Various statistics about the tables are printed as well.
To analyze a table, one must ordinarily be the table's owner or a superuser. However, database owners are allowed to analyze all tables in their databases, except shared catalogs. (The restriction for shared catalogs means that a true database-wide
ANALYZE can only be performed by a superuser.)
ANALYZE will skip over any tables that the calling user does not have permission to analyze.
Foreign tables are analyzed only when explicitly selected. Not all foreign data wrappers support
ANALYZE. If the table's wrapper does not support
ANALYZE, the command prints a warning and does nothing.
In the default PostgreSQL configuration, the autovacuum daemon (see Section 25.1.6) takes care of automatic analyzing of tables when they are first loaded with data, and as they change throughout regular operation. When autovacuum is disabled, it is a good idea to run
ANALYZE periodically, or just after making major changes in the contents of a table. Accurate statistics will help the planner to choose the most appropriate query plan, and thereby improve the speed of query processing. A common strategy for read-mostly databases is to run
ANALYZE once a day during a low-usage time of day. (This will not be sufficient if there is heavy update activity.)
ANALYZE requires only a read lock on the target table, so it can run in parallel with other activity on the table.
The statistics collected by
ANALYZE usually include a list of some of the most common values in each column and a histogram showing the approximate data distribution in each column. One or both of these can be omitted if
ANALYZE deems them uninteresting (for example, in a unique-key column, there are no common values) or if the column data type does not support the appropriate operators. There is more information about the statistics in Chapter 25.
For large tables,
ANALYZE takes a random sample of the table contents, rather than examining every row. This allows even very large tables to be analyzed in a small amount of time. Note, however, that the statistics are only approximate, and will change slightly each time
ANALYZE is run, even if the actual table contents did not change. This might result in small changes in the planner's estimated costs shown by
EXPLAIN. In rare situations, this non-determinism will cause the planner's choices of query plans to change after
ANALYZE is run. To avoid this, raise the amount of statistics collected by
ANALYZE, as described below.
The extent of analysis can be controlled by adjusting the default_statistics_target configuration variable, or on a column-by-column basis by setting the per-column statistics target with
ALTER TABLE ... ALTER COLUMN ... SET STATISTICS. The target value sets the maximum number of entries in the most-common-value list and the maximum number of bins in the histogram. The default target value is 100, but this can be adjusted up or down to trade off accuracy of planner estimates against the time taken for
ANALYZE and the amount of space occupied in
pg_statistic. In particular, setting the statistics target to zero disables collection of statistics for that column. It might be useful to do that for columns that are never used as part of the
GROUP BY, or
ORDER BY clauses of queries, since the planner will have no use for statistics on such columns.
The largest statistics target among the columns being analyzed determines the number of table rows sampled to prepare the statistics. Increasing the target causes a proportional increase in the time and space needed to do
One of the values estimated by
ANALYZE is the number of distinct values that appear in each column. Because only a subset of the rows are examined, this estimate can sometimes be quite inaccurate, even with the largest possible statistics target. If this inaccuracy leads to bad query plans, a more accurate value can be determined manually and then installed with
ALTER TABLE ... ALTER COLUMN ... SET (n_distinct = ...).
If the table being analyzed is partitioned,
ANALYZE will gather statistics by sampling blocks randomly from its partitions; in addition, it will recurse into each partition and update its statistics. (However, in multi-level partitioning scenarios, each leaf partition will only be analyzed once.) By constrast, if the table being analyzed has inheritance children,
ANALYZE will gather statistics for it twice: once on the rows of the parent table only, and a second time on the rows of the parent table with all of its children. This second set of statistics is needed when planning queries that traverse the entire inheritance tree. The child tables themselves are not individually analyzed in this case.
The autovacuum daemon counts inserts, updates and deletes in the partitions to determine if auto-analyze is needed. However, adding or removing partitions does not affect autovacuum daemon decisions, so triggering a manual
ANALYZE is recommended when this occurs.
Tuples changed in inheritance children do not count towards analyze on the parent table. If the parent table is empty or rarely modified, it may never be processed by autovacuum. It's necessary to periodically run a manual
ANALYZE to keep the statistics of the table hierarchy up to date.
If any of the child tables or partitions are foreign tables whose foreign data wrappers do not support
ANALYZE, those child tables are ignored while gathering inheritance statistics.
If the table being analyzed is completely empty,
ANALYZE will not record new statistics for that table. Any existing statistics will be retained.
Each backend running
ANALYZE will report its progress in the
pg_stat_progress_analyze view. See Section 28.4.1 for details.
There is no
ANALYZE statement in the SQL standard.