This section describes the SQL-compliant conditional expressions available in PostgreSQL.
Tip: If your needs go beyond the capabilities of these conditional expressions, you might want to consider writing a stored procedure in a more expressive programming language.
The SQL CASE expression is a generic conditional expression, similar to if/else statements in other programming languages:
CASE WHEN condition THEN result [WHEN ...] [ELSE result] END
CASE clauses can be used wherever an expression is valid. Each condition is an expression that returns a boolean result. If the condition's result is true, the value of the CASE expression is the result that follows the condition, and the remainder of the CASE expression is not processed. If the condition's result is not true, any subsequent WHEN clauses are examined in the same manner. If no WHEN condition yields true, the value of the CASE expression is the result of the ELSE clause. If the ELSE clause is omitted and no condition is true, the result is null.
SELECT * FROM test; a --- 1 2 3 SELECT a, CASE WHEN a=1 THEN 'one' WHEN a=2 THEN 'two' ELSE 'other' END FROM test; a | case ---+------- 1 | one 2 | two 3 | other
The data types of all the result expressions must be convertible to a single output type. See Section 10.5 for more details.
There is a "simple" form of CASE expression that is a variant of the general form above:
CASE expression WHEN value THEN result [WHEN ...] [ELSE result] END
The first expression is computed, then compared to each of the value expressions in the WHEN clauses until one is found that is equal to it. If no match is found, the result of the ELSE clause (or a null value) is returned. This is similar to the
switch statement in C.
The example above can be written using the simple CASE syntax:
SELECT a, CASE a WHEN 1 THEN 'one' WHEN 2 THEN 'two' ELSE 'other' END FROM test; a | case ---+------- 1 | one 2 | two 3 | other
A CASE expression does not evaluate any subexpressions that are not needed to determine the result. For example, this is a possible way of avoiding a division-by-zero failure:
SELECT ... WHERE CASE WHEN x <> 0 THEN y/x > 1.5 ELSE false END;
Note: As described in Section 4.2.14, there are various situations in which subexpressions of an expression are evaluated at different times, so that the principle that "CASE evaluates only necessary subexpressions" is not ironclad. For example a constant 1/0 subexpression will usually result in a division-by-zero failure at planning time, even if it's within a CASE arm that would never be entered at run time.
COALESCE(value [, ...])
COALESCE function returns the first of its arguments that is not null. Null is returned only if all arguments are null. It is often used to substitute a default value for null values when data is retrieved for display, for example:
SELECT COALESCE(description, short_description, '(none)') ...
This returns description if it is not null, otherwise short_description if it is not null, otherwise (none).
The arguments must all be convertible to a common data type, which will be the type of the result (see Section 10.5 for details).
Like a CASE expression,
COALESCE only evaluates the arguments that are needed to determine the result; that is, arguments to the right of the first non-null argument are not evaluated. This SQL-standard function provides capabilities similar to
IFNULL, which are used in some other database systems.
NULLIF function returns a null value if value1 equals value2; otherwise it returns value1. This can be used to perform the inverse operation of the
COALESCE example given above:
SELECT NULLIF(value, '(none)') ...
In this example, if value is (none), null is returned, otherwise the value of value is returned.
The two arguments must be of comparable types. To be specific, they are compared exactly as if you had written value1 = value2, so there must be a suitable = operator available.
The result has the same type as the first argument — but there is a subtlety. What is actually returned is the first argument of the implied = operator, and in some cases that will have been promoted to match the second argument's type. For example, NULLIF(1, 2.2) yields numeric, because there is no integer = numeric operator, only numeric = numeric.
GREATEST(value [, ...])
LEAST(value [, ...])
LEAST functions select the largest or smallest value from a list of any number of expressions. The expressions must all be convertible to a common data type, which will be the type of the result (see Section 10.5 for details). NULL values in the list are ignored. The result will be NULL only if all the expressions evaluate to NULL.
LEAST are not in the SQL standard, but are a common extension. Some other databases make them return NULL if any argument is NULL, rather than only when all are NULL.