Postgres has a rich set of native data types available to users. Users may add new types to Postgres using the CREATE TYPE command.
Table 3-1 shows all general-purpose data types available to users. Most of the alternative names listed in the "Aliases" column are the names used internally by Postgres for historical reasons. In addition, some internally used or deprecated types are available, but they are not documented here. Many of the built-in types have obvious external formats. However, several types are either unique to Postgres, such as open and closed paths, or have several possibilities for formats, such as the date and time types.
Table 3-1. Data Types
|bigint||int8||signed eight-byte integer|
|bit||fixed-length bit string|
|bit varying(n)||varbit(n)||variable-length bit string|
|boolean||bool||logical Boolean (true/false)|
|box||rectangular box in 2D plane|
|character(n)||char(n)||fixed-length character string|
|character varying(n)||varchar(n)||variable-length character string|
|cidr||IP network address|
|circle||circle in 2D plane|
|date||calendar date (year, month, day)|
|double precision||float8||double precision floating-point number|
|inet||IP host address|
|integer||int, int4||signed four-byte integer|
|interval||general-use time span|
|line||infinite line in 2D plane|
|lseg||line segment in 2D plane|
|numeric(p, s)||decimal(p, s)||exact numeric with selectable precision|
|path||open and closed geometric path in 2D plane|
|point||geometric point in 2D plane|
|polygon||closed geometric path in 2D plane|
|real||float4||single precision floating-point number|
|smallint||int2||signed two-byte integer|
|serial||autoincrementing four-byte integer|
|text||variable-length character string|
|time [ without time zone ]||time of day|
|time with time zone||time of day, including time zone|
|timestamp [ with time zone ]||date and time|
Compatibility: The following types (or spellings thereof) are specified by SQL: bit, bit varying, boolean, char, character, character varying, varchar, date, double precision, integer, interval, numeric, decimal, real, smallint, time, timestamp (both with or without time zone).
Most of the input and output functions corresponding to the base types (e.g., integers and floating point numbers) do some error-checking. Some of the operators and functions (e.g., addition and multiplication) do not perform run-time error-checking in the interests of improving execution speed. On some systems, for example, the numeric operators for some data types may silently underflow or overflow.
Some of the input and output functions are not invertible. That is, the result of an output function may lose precision when compared to the original input.
Numeric types consist of two-, four-, and eight-byte integers, four- and eight-byte floating point numbers and fixed-precision decimals.
Table 3-2. Numeric Types
|smallint||2 bytes||Fixed-precision||-32768 to +32767|
|integer||4 bytes||Usual choice for fixed-precision||-2147483648 to +2147483647|
|bigint||8 bytes||Very large range fixed-precision||about 18 decimal places|
|decimal||variable||User-specified precision||no limit|
|numeric||variable||User-specified precision||no limit|
|real||4 bytes||Variable-precision||6 decimal places|
|double precision||8 bytes||Variable-precision||15 decimal places|
|serial||4 bytes||Identifier or cross-reference||0 to +2147483647|
The syntax of constants for the numeric types is described in Section 1.1.2. The numeric types have a full set of corresponding arithmetic operators and functions. Refer to Chapter 4 for more information.
The bigint type may not be available on all platforms since it relies on compiler support for eight-byte integers.
The serial type is a special-case type constructed by Postgres from other existing components. It is typically used to create unique identifiers for table entries. In the current implementation, specifying
CREATE TABLE tablename (colname SERIAL);is equivalent to specifying:
CREATE SEQUENCE tablename_colname_seq; CREATE TABLE tablename (colname integer DEFAULT nextval('tablename_colname_seq'); CREATE UNIQUE INDEX tablename_colname_key on tablename (colname);
The implicit sequence created for the serial type will not be automatically removed when the table is dropped.
CREATE TABLE tablename (colname SERIAL); DROP TABLE tablename; CREATE TABLE tablename (colname SERIAL);The sequence will remain in the database until explicitly dropped using DROP SEQUENCE.
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