14th September 2023:
PostgreSQL 16 Released!

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7.0

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Geometric types represent two-dimensional spatial objects. The most fundamental type, the point, forms the basis for all of the other types.

Table 3-18. Postgres Geometric Types

Geometric Type | Storage | Representation | Description |
---|---|---|---|

point | 16 bytes | (x,y) | Point in space |

line | 32 bytes | ((x1,y1),(x2,y2)) | Infinite line |

lseg | 32 bytes | ((x1,y1),(x2,y2)) | Finite line segment |

box | 32 bytes | ((x1,y1),(x2,y2)) | Rectangular box |

path | 4+32n bytes | ((x1,y1),...) | Closed path (similar to polygon) |

path | 4+32n bytes | [(x1,y1),...] | Open path |

polygon | 4+32n bytes | ((x1,y1),...) | Polygon (similar to closed path) |

circle | 24 bytes | <(x,y),r> | Circle (center and radius) |

A rich set of functions and operators is available to perform various geometric operations such as scaling, translation, rotation, and determining intersections.

Points are the fundamental two-dimensional building block for geometric types.

point is specified using the following syntax:

(where the arguments arex,y)x,y

`x`-
The x-axis coordinate as a floating point number.

`y`-
The y-axis coordinate as a floating point number.

Line segments (lseg) are represented by pairs of points.

lseg is specified using the following syntax:

( (where the arguments arex1,y1) , (x2,y2) ) (x1,y1) , (x2,y2)x1,y1,x2,y2

- (
`x1`,`y1`), (`x2`,`y2`) -
The endpoints of the line segment.

Boxes are represented by pairs of points which are opposite corners of the box.

box is specified using the following syntax:

( (where the arguments arex1,y1) , (x2,y2) ) (x1,y1) , (x2,y2)x1,y1,x2,y2

- (
`x1`,`y1`), (`x2`,`y2`) -
Opposite corners of the box.

Boxes are output using the first syntax. The corners are reordered on input to store the lower left corner first and the upper right corner last. Other corners of the box can be entered, but the lower left and upper right corners are determined from the input and stored.

Paths are represented by connected sets of points. Paths can be
"open", where the first and last points in the set are not
connected, and "closed", where the first and last point are
connected. Functions `popen(p)` and
`pclose(p)` are supplied to force a path to
be open or closed, and functions `isopen(p)` and `isclosed(p)`
are supplied to test for either type in a query.

path is specified using the following syntax:

( (where the arguments arex1,y1) , ... , (xn,yn) ) [ (x1,y1) , ... , (xn,yn) ] (x1,y1) , ... , (xn,yn) (x1,y1, ... ,xn,yn)x1,y1, ... ,xn,yn

- (
`x`,`y`) -
Endpoints of the line segments comprising the path. A leading square bracket ("[") indicates an open path, while a leading parenthesis ("(") indicates a closed path.

Paths are output using the first syntax. Note that Postgres versions prior to v6.1 used a format
for paths which had a single leading parenthesis, a "closed" flag,
an integer count of the number of points, then the list of points
followed by a closing parenthesis. The built-in function `upgradepath` is supplied to convert paths dumped and
reloaded from pre-v6.1 databases.

Polygons are represented by sets of points. Polygons should probably be considered equivalent to closed paths, but are stored differently and have their own set of support routines.

polygon is specified using the following syntax:

( (where the arguments arex1,y1) , ... , (xn,yn) ) (x1,y1) , ... , (xn,yn) (x1,y1, ... ,xn,yn)x1,y1, ... ,xn,yn

- (
`x`,`y`) -
Endpoints of the line segments comprising the boundary of the polygon.

Polygons are output using the first syntax. Note that
Postgres versions prior to v6.1
used a format for polygons which had a single leading parenthesis,
the list of x-axis coordinates, the list of y-axis coordinates,
followed by a closing parenthesis. The built-in function `upgradepoly` is supplied to convert polygons dumped
and reloaded from pre-v6.1 databases.

Circles are represented by a center point and a radius.

circle is specified using the following syntax:

< (where the arguments arex,y) ,r> ( (x,y) ,r) (x,y) ,rx,y,r

- (
`x`,`y`) -
Center of the circle.

`r`-
Radius of the circle.

Circles are output using the first syntax.