Note: This chapter must go into depth on each area of the query language. Currently a copy of the tutorial. - thomas 1998-01-12
The Postgres query language is a variant of SQL3. It has many extensions such as an extensible type system, inheritance, functions and production rules. Those are features carried over from the original Postgres query language, PostQuel. This section provides an overview of how to use Postgres SQL to perform simple operations. This manual is only intended to give you an idea of our flavor of SQL and is in no way a complete tutorial on SQL. Numerous books have been written on SQL. For instance, consult Understanding the New SQL or A Guide to the SQL Standard. You should also be aware that some features of Postgres are not part of the ANSI standard.
The fundamental notion in Postgres is that of a class, which is a named collection of object instances. Each instance has the same collection of named attributes, and each attribute is of a specific type. Furthermore, each instance has a permanent object identifier (OID) that is unique throughout the installation. Because SQL syntax refers to tables, we will use the terms table and class interchangeably. Likewise, an SQL row is an instance and SQL columns are attributes. As previously discussed, classes are grouped into databases, and a collection of databases managed by a single postmaster process constitutes an installation or site.