The PL/Python language module automatically imports a Python module called
plpy. The functions and constants in this module are available to you in the Python code as
plpy module provides several functions to execute database commands:
plpy.execute with a query string and an optional row limit argument causes that query to be run and the result to be returned in a result object.
limit is specified and is greater than zero, then
plpy.execute retrieves at most
limit rows, much as if the query included a
LIMIT clause. Omitting
limit or specifying it as zero results in no row limit.
The result object emulates a list or dictionary object. The result object can be accessed by row number and column name. For example:
rv = plpy.execute("SELECT * FROM my_table", 5)
returns up to 5 rows from
my_table has a column
my_column, it would be accessed as:
foo = rv[i]["my_column"]
The number of rows returned can be obtained using the built-in
The result object has these additional methods:
Returns the number of rows processed by the command. Note that this is not necessarily the same as the number of rows returned. For example, an
UPDATE command will set this value but won't return any rows (unless
RETURNING is used).
SPI_execute() return value.
Return a list of column names, list of column type OIDs, and list of type-specific type modifiers for the columns, respectively.
These methods raise an exception when called on a result object from a command that did not produce a result set, e.g.,
DROP TABLE. But it is OK to use these methods on a result set containing zero rows.
__str__ method is defined so that it is possible for example to debug query execution results using
The result object can be modified.
Note that calling
plpy.execute will cause the entire result set to be read into memory. Only use that function when you are sure that the result set will be relatively small. If you don't want to risk excessive memory usage when fetching large results, use
plpy.cursor rather than
plpy.prepare prepares the execution plan for a query. It is called with a query string and a list of parameter types, if you have parameter references in the query. For example:
plan = plpy.prepare("SELECT last_name FROM my_users WHERE first_name = $1", ["text"])
text is the type of the variable you will be passing for
$1. The second argument is optional if you don't want to pass any parameters to the query.
After preparing a statement, you use a variant of the function
plpy.execute to run it:
rv = plpy.execute(plan, ["name"], 5)
Pass the plan as the first argument (instead of the query string), and a list of values to substitute into the query as the second argument. The second argument is optional if the query does not expect any parameters. The third argument is the optional row limit as before.
Alternatively, you can call the
execute method on the plan object:
rv = plan.execute(["name"], 5)
Query parameters and result row fields are converted between PostgreSQL and Python data types as described in Section 46.2.
When you prepare a plan using the PL/Python module it is automatically saved. Read the SPI documentation (Chapter 47) for a description of what this means. In order to make effective use of this across function calls one needs to use one of the persistent storage dictionaries
GD (see Section 46.3). For example:
CREATE FUNCTION usesavedplan() RETURNS trigger AS $$ if "plan" in SD: plan = SD["plan"] else: plan = plpy.prepare("SELECT 1") SD["plan"] = plan # rest of function $$ LANGUAGE plpython3u;
plpy.cursor function accepts the same arguments as
plpy.execute (except for the row limit) and returns a cursor object, which allows you to process large result sets in smaller chunks. As with
plpy.execute, either a query string or a plan object along with a list of arguments can be used, or the
cursor function can be called as a method of the plan object.
The cursor object provides a
fetch method that accepts an integer parameter and returns a result object. Each time you call
fetch, the returned object will contain the next batch of rows, never larger than the parameter value. Once all rows are exhausted,
fetch starts returning an empty result object. Cursor objects also provide an iterator interface, yielding one row at a time until all rows are exhausted. Data fetched that way is not returned as result objects, but rather as dictionaries, each dictionary corresponding to a single result row.
An example of two ways of processing data from a large table is:
CREATE FUNCTION count_odd_iterator() RETURNS integer AS $$ odd = 0 for row in plpy.cursor("select num from largetable"): if row['num'] % 2: odd += 1 return odd $$ LANGUAGE plpython3u; CREATE FUNCTION count_odd_fetch(batch_size integer) RETURNS integer AS $$ odd = 0 cursor = plpy.cursor("select num from largetable") while True: rows = cursor.fetch(batch_size) if not rows: break for row in rows: if row['num'] % 2: odd += 1 return odd $$ LANGUAGE plpython3u; CREATE FUNCTION count_odd_prepared() RETURNS integer AS $$ odd = 0 plan = plpy.prepare("select num from largetable where num % $1 <> 0", ["integer"]) rows = list(plpy.cursor(plan, )) # or: = list(plan.cursor()) return len(rows) $$ LANGUAGE plpython3u;
Cursors are automatically disposed of. But if you want to explicitly release all resources held by a cursor, use the
close method. Once closed, a cursor cannot be fetched from anymore.
Do not confuse objects created by
plpy.cursor with DB-API cursors as defined by the Python Database API specification. They don't have anything in common except for the name.
Functions accessing the database might encounter errors, which will cause them to abort and raise an exception. Both
plpy.prepare can raise an instance of a subclass of
plpy.SPIError, which by default will terminate the function. This error can be handled just like any other Python exception, by using the
try/except construct. For example:
CREATE FUNCTION try_adding_joe() RETURNS text AS $$ try: plpy.execute("INSERT INTO users(username) VALUES ('joe')") except plpy.SPIError: return "something went wrong" else: return "Joe added" $$ LANGUAGE plpython3u;
The actual class of the exception being raised corresponds to the specific condition that caused the error. Refer to Table A.1 for a list of possible conditions. The module
plpy.spiexceptions defines an exception class for each PostgreSQL condition, deriving their names from the condition name. For instance,
FdwError, and so on. Each of these exception classes inherits from
SPIError. This separation makes it easier to handle specific errors, for instance:
CREATE FUNCTION insert_fraction(numerator int, denominator int) RETURNS text AS $$ from plpy import spiexceptions try: plan = plpy.prepare("INSERT INTO fractions (frac) VALUES ($1 / $2)", ["int", "int"]) plpy.execute(plan, [numerator, denominator]) except spiexceptions.DivisionByZero: return "denominator cannot equal zero" except spiexceptions.UniqueViolation: return "already have that fraction" except plpy.SPIError as e: return "other error, SQLSTATE %s" % e.sqlstate else: return "fraction inserted" $$ LANGUAGE plpython3u;
Note that because all exceptions from the
plpy.spiexceptions module inherit from
except clause handling it will catch any database access error.
As an alternative way of handling different error conditions, you can catch the
SPIError exception and determine the specific error condition inside the
except block by looking at the
sqlstate attribute of the exception object. This attribute is a string value containing the “SQLSTATE” error code. This approach provides approximately the same functionality