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CREATE PUBLICATION

CREATE PUBLICATION — define a new publication

Synopsis

CREATE PUBLICATION name
    [ FOR ALL TABLES
      | FOR publication_object [, ... ] ]
    [ WITH ( publication_parameter [= value] [, ... ] ) ]

where publication_object is one of:

    TABLE [ ONLY ] table_name [ * ] [ ( column_name [, ... ] ) ] [ WHERE ( expression ) ] [, ... ]
    ALL TABLES IN SCHEMA { schema_name | CURRENT_SCHEMA } [, ... ]

Description

CREATE PUBLICATION adds a new publication into the current database. The publication name must be distinct from the name of any existing publication in the current database.

A publication is essentially a group of tables whose data changes are intended to be replicated through logical replication. See Section 31.1 for details about how publications fit into the logical replication setup.

Parameters

name

The name of the new publication.

FOR TABLE

Specifies a list of tables to add to the publication. If ONLY is specified before the table name, only that table is added to the publication. If ONLY is not specified, the table and all its descendant tables (if any) are added. Optionally, * can be specified after the table name to explicitly indicate that descendant tables are included. This does not apply to a partitioned table, however. The partitions of a partitioned table are always implicitly considered part of the publication, so they are never explicitly added to the publication.

If the optional WHERE clause is specified, it defines a row filter expression. Rows for which the expression evaluates to false or null will not be published. Note that parentheses are required around the expression. It has no effect on TRUNCATE commands.

When a column list is specified, only the named columns are replicated. If no column list is specified, all columns of the table are replicated through this publication, including any columns added later. If a column list is specified, it must include the replica identity columns.

Only persistent base tables and partitioned tables can be part of a publication. Temporary tables, unlogged tables, foreign tables, materialized views, and regular views cannot be part of a publication.

When a partitioned table is added to a publication, all of its existing and future partitions are implicitly considered to be part of the publication. So, even operations that are performed directly on a partition are also published via publications that its ancestors are part of.

Specifying a table that is part of a schema specified by FOR ALL TABLES IN SCHEMA is not supported.

FOR ALL TABLES

Marks the publication as one that replicates changes for all tables in the database, including tables created in the future.

FOR ALL TABLES IN SCHEMA

Marks the publication as one that replicates changes for all tables in the specified list of schemas, including tables created in the future.

Specifying a schema along with a table which belongs to the specified schema using FOR TABLE is not supported.

Only persistent base tables and partitioned tables present in the schema will be included as part of the publication. Temporary tables, unlogged tables, foreign tables, materialized views, and regular views from the schema will not be part of the publication.

When a partitioned table is published via schema level publication, all of its existing and future partitions are implicitly considered to be part of the publication, regardless of whether they are from the publication schema or not. So, even operations that are performed directly on a partition are also published via publications that its ancestors are part of.

WITH ( publication_parameter [= value] [, ... ] )

This clause specifies optional parameters for a publication. The following parameters are supported:

publish (string)

This parameter determines which DML operations will be published by the new publication to the subscribers. The value is comma-separated list of operations. The allowed operations are insert, update, delete, and truncate. The default is to publish all actions, and so the default value for this option is 'insert, update, delete, truncate'.

This parameter only affects DML operations. In particular, the initial data synchronization (see Section 31.6.1) for logical replication does not take this parameter into account when copying existing table data.

publish_via_partition_root (boolean)

This parameter determines whether changes in a partitioned table (or on its partitions) contained in the publication will be published using the identity and schema of the partitioned table rather than that of the individual partitions that are actually changed; the latter is the default. Enabling this allows the changes to be replicated into a non-partitioned table or a partitioned table consisting of a different set of partitions.

This parameter also affects how row filters and column lists are chosen for partitions; see below for details.

If this is enabled, TRUNCATE operations performed directly on partitions are not replicated.

Notes

If FOR TABLE, FOR ALL TABLES or FOR ALL TABLES IN SCHEMA are not specified, then the publication starts out with an empty set of tables. That is useful if tables or schemas are to be added later.

The creation of a publication does not start replication. It only defines a grouping and filtering logic for future subscribers.

To create a publication, the invoking user must have the CREATE privilege for the current database. (Of course, superusers bypass this check.)

To add a table to a publication, the invoking user must have ownership rights on the table. The FOR ALL TABLES and FOR ALL TABLES IN SCHEMA clauses require the invoking user to be a superuser.

The tables added to a publication that publishes UPDATE and/or DELETE operations must have REPLICA IDENTITY defined. Otherwise those operations will be disallowed on those tables.

A row filter expression (i.e., the WHERE clause) must contain only columns that are covered by the REPLICA IDENTITY, in order for UPDATE and DELETE operations to be published. For publication of INSERT operations, any column may be used in the WHERE expression. The row filter allows simple expressions that don't have user-defined functions, user-defined operators, user-defined types, user-defined collations, non-immutable built-in functions, or references to system columns.

For published partitioned tables, the row filter for each partition is taken from the published partitioned table if the publication parameter publish_via_partition_root is true, or from the partition itself if it is false (the default). See Section 31.3 for details about row filters. Similarly, for published partitioned tables, the column list for each partition is taken from the published partitioned table if the publication parameter publish_via_partition_root is true, or from the partition itself if it is false.

For an INSERT ... ON CONFLICT command, the publication will publish the operation that actually results from the command. So depending of the outcome, it may be published as either INSERT or UPDATE, or it may not be published at all.

ATTACHing a table into a partition tree whose root is published using a publication with publish_via_partition_root set to true does not result in the table's existing contents being replicated.

COPY ... FROM commands are published as INSERT operations.

DDL operations are not published.

The WHERE clause expression is executed with the role used for the replication connection.

Examples

Create a publication that publishes all changes in two tables:

CREATE PUBLICATION mypublication FOR TABLE users, departments;

Create a publication that publishes all changes from active departments:

CREATE PUBLICATION active_departments FOR TABLE departments WHERE (active IS TRUE);

Create a publication that publishes all changes in all tables:

CREATE PUBLICATION alltables FOR ALL TABLES;

Create a publication that only publishes INSERT operations in one table:

CREATE PUBLICATION insert_only FOR TABLE mydata
    WITH (publish = 'insert');

Create a publication that publishes all changes for tables users, departments and all changes for all the tables present in the schema production:

CREATE PUBLICATION production_publication FOR TABLE users, departments, ALL TABLES IN SCHEMA production;

Create a publication that publishes all changes for all the tables present in the schemas marketing and sales:

CREATE PUBLICATION sales_publication FOR ALL TABLES IN SCHEMA marketing, sales;

Create a publication that publishes all changes for table users, but replicates only columns user_id and firstname:

CREATE PUBLICATION users_filtered FOR TABLE users (user_id, firstname);

Compatibility

CREATE PUBLICATION is a PostgreSQL extension.