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9.6. Bit String Functions and Operators
This section describes functions and operators for examining and manipulating bit strings, that is values of the types bit
and bit varying
. (While only type bit
is mentioned in these tables, values of type bit varying
can be used interchangeably.) Bit strings support the usual comparison operators shown in Table 9.1, as well as the operators shown in Table 9.14.
Table 9.14. Bit String Operators
Operator
Description
Example(s)

bit  bit → bit
Concatenation
B'10001'  B'011' → 10001011

bit & bit → bit
Bitwise AND (inputs must be of equal length)
B'10001' & B'01101' → 00001

bit  bit → bit
Bitwise OR (inputs must be of equal length)
B'10001'  B'01101' → 11101

bit # bit → bit
Bitwise exclusive OR (inputs must be of equal length)
B'10001' # B'01101' → 11100

~ bit → bit
Bitwise NOT
~ B'10001' → 01110

bit << integer → bit
Bitwise shift left (string length is preserved)
B'10001' << 3 → 01000

bit >> integer → bit
Bitwise shift right (string length is preserved)
B'10001' >> 2 → 00100

Some of the functions available for binary strings are also available for bit strings, as shown in Table 9.15.
Table 9.15. Bit String Functions
Function
Description
Example(s)

bit_count ( bit ) → bigint
Returns the number of bits set in the bit string (also known as “popcount”).
bit_count(B'10111') → 4

bit_length ( bit ) → integer
Returns number of bits in the bit string.
bit_length(B'10111') → 5

length ( bit ) → integer
Returns number of bits in the bit string.
length(B'10111') → 5

octet_length ( bit ) → integer
Returns number of bytes in the bit string.
octet_length(B'1011111011') → 2

overlay ( bits bit PLACING newsubstring bit FROM start integer [ FOR count integer ] ) → bit
Replaces the substring of bits that starts at the start 'th bit and extends for count bits with newsubstring . If count is omitted, it defaults to the length of newsubstring .
overlay(B'01010101010101010' placing B'11111' from 2 for 3) → 0111110101010101010

position ( substring bit IN bits bit ) → integer
Returns starting index of specified substring within bits , or zero if it's not present.
position(B'010' in B'000001101011') → 8

substring ( bits bit [ FROM start integer ] [ FOR count integer ] ) → bit
Extracts the substring of bits starting at the start 'th bit if that is specified, and stopping after count bits if that is specified. Provide at least one of start and count .
substring(B'110010111111' from 3 for 2) → 00

get_bit ( bits bit , n integer ) → integer
Extracts n 'th bit from bit string; the first (leftmost) bit is bit 0.
get_bit(B'101010101010101010', 6) → 1

set_bit ( bits bit , n integer , newvalue integer ) → bit
Sets n 'th bit in bit string to newvalue ; the first (leftmost) bit is bit 0.
set_bit(B'101010101010101010', 6, 0) → 101010001010101010

In addition, it is possible to cast integral values to and from type bit
. Casting an integer to bit(n)
copies the rightmost n
bits. Casting an integer to a bit string width wider than the integer itself will signextend on the left. Some examples:
44::bit(10) 0000101100
44::bit(3) 100
cast(44 as bit(12)) 111111010100
'1110'::bit(4)::integer 14
Note that casting to just “bit” means casting to bit(1)
, and so will deliver only the least significant bit of the integer.