14th September 2023: PostgreSQL 16 Released!
Supported Versions: Current (16) / 15 / 14 / 13 / 12 / 11
Development Versions: devel
Unsupported versions: 10 / 9.6 / 9.5 / 9.4 / 9.3 / 9.2 / 9.1 / 9.0 / 8.4 / 8.3 / 8.2

H.1. Client Interfaces

There are only two client interfaces included in the base PostgreSQL distribution:

  • libpq is included because it is the primary C language interface, and because many other client interfaces are built on top of it.

  • ECPG is included because it depends on the server-side SQL grammar, and is therefore sensitive to changes in PostgreSQL itself.

All other language interfaces are external projects and are distributed separately. Table H.1 includes a list of some of these projects. Note that some of these packages might not be released under the same license as PostgreSQL. For more information on each language interface, including licensing terms, refer to its website and documentation.

Table H.1. Externally Maintained Client Interfaces

Name Language Comments Website
DBD::Pg Perl Perl DBI driver https://metacpan.org/release/DBD-Pg
JDBC Java Type 4 JDBC driver https://jdbc.postgresql.org/
libpqxx C++ C++ interface https://pqxx.org/
node-postgres JavaScript Node.js driver https://node-postgres.com/
Npgsql .NET .NET data provider https://www.npgsql.org/
pgtcl Tcl   https://github.com/flightaware/Pgtcl
pgtclng Tcl   https://sourceforge.net/projects/pgtclng/
pq Go Pure Go driver for Go's database/sql https://github.com/lib/pq
psqlODBC ODBC ODBC driver https://odbc.postgresql.org/
psycopg Python DB API 2.0-compliant https://www.psycopg.org/

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