CREATE VIEW — define a new view
CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] [ TEMP | TEMPORARY ] [ RECURSIVE ] VIEW
column_name[, ...] ) ] [ WITH (
view_option_value] [, ... ] ) ] AS
query[ WITH [ CASCADED | LOCAL ] CHECK OPTION ]
CREATE VIEW defines a view of a
query. The view is not physically materialized. Instead, the
query is run every time the view is referenced in a query.
CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW is
similar, but if a view of the same name already exists, it is
replaced. The new query must generate the same columns that
were generated by the existing view query (that is, the same
column names in the same order and with the same data types),
but it may add additional columns to the end of the list. The
calculations giving rise to the output columns may be
If a schema name is given (for example,
CREATE VIEW myschema.myview ...) then the view
is created in the specified schema. Otherwise it is created in
the current schema. Temporary views exist in a special schema,
so a schema name cannot be given when creating a temporary
view. The name of the view must be distinct from the name of
any other view, table, sequence, index or foreign table in the
If specified, the view is created as a temporary view. Temporary views are automatically dropped at the end of the current session. Existing permanent relations with the same name are not visible to the current session while the temporary view exists, unless they are referenced with schema-qualified names.
If any of the tables referenced by the view are
temporary, the view is created as a temporary view
specified or not).
Creates a recursive view. The syntax
CREATE RECURSIVE VIEW [
column_names) AS SELECT
is equivalent to
CREATE VIEW [
view_nameAS WITH RECURSIVE
column_names) AS (SELECT
A view column name list must be specified for a recursive view.
The name (optionally schema-qualified) of a view to be created.
An optional list of names to be used for columns of the view. If not given, the column names are deduced from the query.
view_option_value] [, ... ] )
This clause specifies optional parameters for a view; the following parameters are supported:
This parameter may be either
cascaded, and is equivalent to
WITH [ CASCADED |
LOCAL ] CHECK OPTION (see below). This
option can be changed on existing views using
This should be used if the view is intended to provide row-level security. See Section 41.5 for full details.
WITH [ CASCADED | LOCAL ] CHECK OPTION
This option controls the behavior of automatically
updatable views. When this option is specified,
UPDATE commands on the view will be
checked to ensure that new rows satisfy the view-defining
condition (that is, the new rows are checked to ensure
that they are visible through the view). If they are not,
the update will be rejected. If the
CHECK OPTION is not specified,
UPDATE commands on the view are allowed
to create rows that are not visible through the view. The
following check options are supported:
New rows are only checked against the conditions
defined directly in the view itself. Any conditions
defined on underlying base views are not checked
(unless they also specify the
New rows are checked against the conditions of
the view and all underlying base views. If the
CHECK OPTION is
specified, and neither
CASCADED is specified, then
CHECK OPTION may not
be used with
Note that the
OPTION is only supported on views that are
automatically updatable, and do not have
INSTEAD OF triggers or
INSTEAD rules. If an automatically
updatable view is defined on top of a base view that has
INSTEAD OF triggers, then
LOCAL CHECK OPTION may
be used to check the conditions on the automatically
updatable view, but the conditions on the base view with
INSTEAD OF triggers will not
be checked (a cascaded check option will not cascade down
to a trigger-updatable view, and any check options
defined directly on a trigger-updatable view will be
ignored). If the view or any of its base relations has an
INSTEAD rule that causes the
UPDATE command to be rewritten, then all
check options will be ignored in the rewritten query,
including any checks from automatically updatable views
defined on top of the relation with the
Use the DROP VIEW statement to drop views.
Be careful that the names and types of the view's columns will be assigned the way you want. For example:
CREATE VIEW vista AS SELECT 'Hello World';
is bad form because the column name defaults to
?column?; also, the column data type defaults
text, which might not be what you
wanted. Better style for a string literal in a view's result is
CREATE VIEW vista AS SELECT text 'Hello World' AS hello;
Access to tables referenced in the view is determined by permissions of the view owner. In some cases, this can be used to provide secure but restricted access to the underlying tables. However, not all views are secure against tampering; see Section 41.5 for details. Functions called in the view are treated the same as if they had been called directly from the query using the view. Therefore the user of a view must have permissions to call all functions used by the view.
CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW is
used on an existing view, only the view's defining SELECT rule
is changed. Other view properties, including ownership,
permissions, and non-SELECT rules, remain unchanged. You must
own the view to replace it (this includes being a member of the
Simple views are automatically updatable: the system will
DELETE statements to be used on the view in
the same way as on a regular table. A view is automatically
updatable if it satisfies all of the following
The view must have exactly one entry in its
FROM list, which must be a
table or another updatable view.
The view definition must not contain
OFFSET clauses at the top level.
The view definition must not contain set operations
EXCEPT) at the top level.
The view's select list must not contain any aggregates, window functions or set-returning functions.
An automatically updatable view may contain a mix of
updatable and non-updatable columns. A column is updatable if
it is a simple reference to an updatable column of the
underlying base relation; otherwise the column is read-only,
and an error will be raised if an
UPDATE statement attempts to assign a value
If the view is automatically updatable the system will
DELETE statement on the view into the
corresponding statement on the underlying base relation.
INSERT statements that have an
ON CONFLICT UPDATE clause are
If an automatically updatable view contains a
WHERE condition, the condition restricts
which rows of the base relation are available to be modified
DELETE statements on the view. However, an
UPDATE is allowed to change a
row so that it no longer satisfies the
WHERE condition, and thus is no longer
visible through the view. Similarly, an
INSERT command can potentially insert
base-relation rows that do not satisfy the
WHERE condition and thus are not visible
through the view (
UPDATE may similarly affect an existing row not
visible through the view). The
OPTION may be used to prevent
UPDATE commands from creating such rows that
are not visible through the view.
If an automatically updatable view is marked with the
security_barrier property then
all the view's
(and any conditions using operators which are marked as
LEAKPROOF) will always be
evaluated before any conditions that a user of the view has
added. See Section 41.5
for full details. Note that, due to this, rows which are not
ultimately returned (because they do not pass the user's
WHERE conditions) may still end
up being locked.
EXPLAIN can be
used to see which conditions are applied at the relation
level (and therefore do not lock rows) and which are not.
A more complex view that does not satisfy all these
conditions is read-only by default: the system will not allow
an insert, update, or delete on the view. You can get the
effect of an updatable view by creating
INSTEAD OF triggers on the view, which must
convert attempted inserts, etc. on the view into appropriate
actions on other tables. For more information see CREATE
TRIGGER. Another possibility is to create rules
RULE), but in practice triggers are easier to
understand and use correctly.
Note that the user performing the insert, update or delete on the view must have the corresponding insert, update or delete privilege on the view. In addition the view's owner must have the relevant privileges on the underlying base relations, but the user performing the update does not need any permissions on the underlying base relations (see Section 41.5).
Create a view consisting of all comedy films:
CREATE VIEW comedies AS SELECT * FROM films WHERE kind = 'Comedy';
This will create a view containing the columns that are in
film table at the time of view
* was used to
create the view, columns added later to the table will not be
part of the view.
Create a view with
CREATE VIEW universal_comedies AS SELECT * FROM comedies WHERE classification = 'U' WITH LOCAL CHECK OPTION;
This will create a view based on the
comedies view, showing only films with
kind = 'Comedy' and
classification = 'U'. Any attempt to
UPDATE a row in the view will be rejected if
the new row doesn't have
'U', but the film
not be checked.
Create a view with
CREATE VIEW pg_comedies AS SELECT * FROM comedies WHERE classification = 'PG' WITH CASCADED CHECK OPTION;
This will create a view that checks both the
classification of new rows.
Create a view with a mix of updatable and non-updatable columns:
CREATE VIEW comedies AS SELECT f.*, country_code_to_name(f.country_code) AS country, (SELECT avg(r.rating) FROM user_ratings r WHERE r.film_id = f.id) AS avg_rating FROM films f WHERE f.kind = 'Comedy';
This view will support
DELETE. All the columns from the
films table will be updatable, whereas the
avg_rating will be read-only.
Create a recursive view consisting of the numbers from 1 to 100:
CREATE RECURSIVE VIEW public.nums_1_100 (n) AS VALUES (1) UNION ALL SELECT n+1 FROM nums_1_100 WHERE n < 100;
Notice that although the recursive view's name is
schema-qualified in this
its internal self-reference is not schema-qualified. This is
because the implicitly-created CTE's name cannot be
CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW is a
PostgreSQL language extension.
So is the concept of a temporary view. The
WITH ( ... ) clause is an extension as
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