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1.13. Example Programs

Example 1-1. libpq Example Program 1

/*
 * testlibpq.c
 *
 * Test the C version of libpq, the PostgreSQL frontend
 * library.
 */
#include <stdio.h>
#include <libpq-fe.h>

void
exit_nicely(PGconn *conn)
{
    PQfinish(conn);
    exit(1);
}

main()
{
    char       *pghost,
               *pgport,
               *pgoptions,
               *pgtty;
    char       *dbName;
    int         nFields;
    int         i,
                j;

    /* FILE *debug; */

    PGconn     *conn;
    PGresult   *res;

    /*
     * begin, by setting the parameters for a backend connection if the
     * parameters are null, then the system will try to use reasonable
     * defaults by looking up environment variables or, failing that,
     * using hardwired constants
     */
    pghost = NULL;              /* host name of the backend server */
    pgport = NULL;              /* port of the backend server */
    pgoptions = NULL;           /* special options to start up the backend
                                 * server */
    pgtty = NULL;               /* debugging tty for the backend server */
    dbName = "template1";

    /* make a connection to the database */
    conn = PQsetdb(pghost, pgport, pgoptions, pgtty, dbName);

    /*
     * check to see that the backend connection was successfully made
     */
    if (PQstatus(conn) == CONNECTION_BAD)
    {
        fprintf(stderr, "Connection to database '%s' failed.\n", dbName);
        fprintf(stderr, "%s", PQerrorMessage(conn));
        exit_nicely(conn);
    }

    /* debug = fopen("/tmp/trace.out","w"); */
    /* PQtrace(conn, debug);  */

    /* start a transaction block */
    res = PQexec(conn, "BEGIN");
    if (!res || PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_COMMAND_OK)
    {
        fprintf(stderr, "BEGIN command failed\n");
        PQclear(res);
        exit_nicely(conn);
    }

    /*
     * should PQclear PGresult whenever it is no longer needed to avoid
     * memory leaks
     */
    PQclear(res);

    /*
     * fetch rows from the pg_database, the system catalog of
     * databases
     */
    res = PQexec(conn, "DECLARE mycursor CURSOR FOR SELECT * FROM pg_database");
    if (!res || PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_COMMAND_OK)
    {
        fprintf(stderr, "DECLARE CURSOR command failed\n");
        PQclear(res);
        exit_nicely(conn);
    }
    PQclear(res);
    res = PQexec(conn, "FETCH ALL in mycursor");
    if (!res || PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_TUPLES_OK)
    {
        fprintf(stderr, "FETCH ALL command didn't return tuples properly\n");
        PQclear(res);
        exit_nicely(conn);
    }

    /* first, print out the attribute names */
    nFields = PQnfields(res);
    for (i = 0; i < nFields; i++)
        printf("%-15s", PQfname(res, i));
    printf("\n\n");

    /* next, print out the rows */
    for (i = 0; i < PQntuples(res); i++)
    {
        for (j = 0; j < nFields; j++)
            printf("%-15s", PQgetvalue(res, i, j));
        printf("\n");
    }
    PQclear(res);

    /* close the cursor */
    res = PQexec(conn, "CLOSE mycursor");
    PQclear(res);

    /* commit the transaction */
    res = PQexec(conn, "COMMIT");
    PQclear(res);

    /* close the connection to the database and cleanup */
    PQfinish(conn);

    /* fclose(debug); */
    return 0;

}

Example 1-2. libpq Example Program 2

/*
 * testlibpq2.c
 *  Test of the asynchronous notification interface
 *
 * Start this program, then from psql in another window do
 *   NOTIFY TBL2;
 *
 * Or, if you want to get fancy, try this:
 * Populate a database with the following:
 *
 *   CREATE TABLE TBL1 (i int4);
 *
 *   CREATE TABLE TBL2 (i int4);
 *
 *   CREATE RULE r1 AS ON INSERT TO TBL1 DO
 *     (INSERT INTO TBL2 values (new.i); NOTIFY TBL2);
 *
 * and do
 *
 *   INSERT INTO TBL1 values (10);
 *
 */
#include <stdio.h>
#include "libpq-fe.h"

void
exit_nicely(PGconn *conn)
{
    PQfinish(conn);
    exit(1);
}

main()
{
    char       *pghost,
               *pgport,
               *pgoptions,
               *pgtty;
    char       *dbName;
    int         nFields;
    int         i,
                j;

    PGconn     *conn;
    PGresult   *res;
    PGnotify   *notify;

    /*
     * begin, by setting the parameters for a backend connection if the
     * parameters are null, then the system will try to use reasonable
     * defaults by looking up environment variables or, failing that,
     * using hardwired constants
     */
    pghost = NULL;              /* host name of the backend server */
    pgport = NULL;              /* port of the backend server */
    pgoptions = NULL;           /* special options to start up the backend
                                 * server */
    pgtty = NULL;               /* debugging tty for the backend server */
    dbName = getenv("USER");    /* change this to the name of your test
                                 * database */

    /* make a connection to the database */
    conn = PQsetdb(pghost, pgport, pgoptions, pgtty, dbName);

    /*
     * check to see that the backend connection was successfully made
     */
    if (PQstatus(conn) == CONNECTION_BAD)
    {
        fprintf(stderr, "Connection to database '%s' failed.\n", dbName);
        fprintf(stderr, "%s", PQerrorMessage(conn));
        exit_nicely(conn);
    }

    res = PQexec(conn, "LISTEN TBL2");
    if (!res || PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_COMMAND_OK)
    {
        fprintf(stderr, "LISTEN command failed\n");
        PQclear(res);
        exit_nicely(conn);
    }

    /*
     * should PQclear PGresult whenever it is no longer needed to avoid
     * memory leaks
     */
    PQclear(res);

    while (1)
    {

        /*
         * wait a little bit between checks; waiting with select()
         * would be more efficient.
         */
        sleep(1);
        /* collect any asynchronous backend messages */
        PQconsumeInput(conn);
        /* check for asynchronous notify messages */
        while ((notify = PQnotifies(conn)) != NULL)
        {
            fprintf(stderr,
                 "ASYNC NOTIFY of '%s' from backend pid '%d' received\n",
                    notify->relname, notify->be_pid);
            free(notify);
        }
    }

    /* close the connection to the database and cleanup */
    PQfinish(conn);

    return 0;
}

Example 1-3. libpq Example Program 3

/*
 * testlibpq3.c Test the C version of Libpq, the PostgreSQL frontend
 * library. tests the binary cursor interface
 *
 *
 *
 * populate a database by doing the following:
 *
 * CREATE TABLE test1 (i int4, d real, p polygon);
 *
 * INSERT INTO test1 values (1, 3.567, polygon '(3.0, 4.0, 1.0, 2.0)');
 *
 * INSERT INTO test1 values (2, 89.05, polygon '(4.0, 3.0, 2.0, 1.0)');
 *
 * the expected output is:
 *
 * tuple 0: got i = (4 bytes) 1, d = (4 bytes) 3.567000, p = (4
 * bytes) 2 points   boundbox = (hi=3.000000/4.000000, lo =
 * 1.000000,2.000000) tuple 1: got i = (4 bytes) 2, d = (4 bytes)
 * 89.050003, p = (4 bytes) 2 points   boundbox =
 * (hi=4.000000/3.000000, lo = 2.000000,1.000000)
 *
 *
 */
#include <stdio.h>
#include "libpq-fe.h"
#include "utils/geo_decls.h"    /* for the POLYGON type */

void
exit_nicely(PGconn *conn)
{
    PQfinish(conn);
    exit(1);
}

main()
{
    char       *pghost,
               *pgport,
               *pgoptions,
               *pgtty;
    char       *dbName;
    int         nFields;
    int         i,
                j;
    int         i_fnum,
                d_fnum,
                p_fnum;
    PGconn     *conn;
    PGresult   *res;

    /*
     * begin, by setting the parameters for a backend connection if the
     * parameters are null, then the system will try to use reasonable
     * defaults by looking up environment variables or, failing that,
     * using hardwired constants
     */
    pghost = NULL;              /* host name of the backend server */
    pgport = NULL;              /* port of the backend server */
    pgoptions = NULL;           /* special options to start up the backend
                                 * server */
    pgtty = NULL;               /* debugging tty for the backend server */

    dbName = getenv("USER");    /* change this to the name of your test
                                 * database */

    /* make a connection to the database */
    conn = PQsetdb(pghost, pgport, pgoptions, pgtty, dbName);

    /*
     * check to see that the backend connection was successfully made
     */
    if (PQstatus(conn) == CONNECTION_BAD)
    {
        fprintf(stderr, "Connection to database '%s' failed.\n", dbName);
        fprintf(stderr, "%s", PQerrorMessage(conn));
        exit_nicely(conn);
    }

    /* start a transaction block */
    res = PQexec(conn, "BEGIN");
    if (!res || PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_COMMAND_OK)
    {
        fprintf(stderr, "BEGIN command failed\n");
        PQclear(res);
        exit_nicely(conn);
    }

    /*
     * should PQclear PGresult whenever it is no longer needed to avoid
     * memory leaks
     */
    PQclear(res);

    /*
     * fetch rows from the pg_database, the system catalog of
     * databases
     */
    res = PQexec(conn, "DECLARE mycursor BINARY CURSOR FOR SELECT * FROM test1");
    if (!res || PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_COMMAND_OK)
    {
        fprintf(stderr, "DECLARE CURSOR command failed\n");
        PQclear(res);
        exit_nicely(conn);
    }
    PQclear(res);

    res = PQexec(conn, "FETCH ALL in mycursor");
    if (!res || PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_TUPLES_OK)
    {
        fprintf(stderr, "FETCH ALL command didn't return tuples properly\n");
        PQclear(res);
        exit_nicely(conn);
    }

    i_fnum = PQfnumber(res, "i");
    d_fnum = PQfnumber(res, "d");
    p_fnum = PQfnumber(res, "p");

    for (i = 0; i < 3; i++)
    {
        printf("type[%d] = %d, size[%d] = %d\n",
               i, PQftype(res, i),
               i, PQfsize(res, i));
    }
    for (i = 0; i < PQntuples(res); i++)
    {
        int        *ival;
        float      *dval;
        int         plen;
        POLYGON    *pval;

        /* we hard-wire this to the 3 fields we know about */
        ival = (int *) PQgetvalue(res, i, i_fnum);
        dval = (float *) PQgetvalue(res, i, d_fnum);
        plen = PQgetlength(res, i, p_fnum);

        /*
         * plen doesn't include the length field so need to
         * increment by VARHDSZ
         */
        pval = (POLYGON *) malloc(plen + VARHDRSZ);
        pval->size = plen;
        memmove((char *) &pval->npts, PQgetvalue(res, i, p_fnum), plen);
        printf("tuple %d: got\n", i);
        printf(" i = (%d bytes) %d,\n",
               PQgetlength(res, i, i_fnum), *ival);
        printf(" d = (%d bytes) %f,\n",
               PQgetlength(res, i, d_fnum), *dval);
        printf(" p = (%d bytes) %d points \tboundbox = (hi=%f/%f, lo = %f,%f)\n",
               PQgetlength(res, i, d_fnum),
               pval->npts,
               pval->boundbox.xh,
               pval->boundbox.yh,
               pval->boundbox.xl,
               pval->boundbox.yl);
    }
    PQclear(res);

    /* close the cursor */
    res = PQexec(conn, "CLOSE mycursor");
    PQclear(res);

    /* commit the transaction */
    res = PQexec(conn, "COMMIT");
    PQclear(res);

    /* close the connection to the database and cleanup */
    PQfinish(conn);

    return 0;
}

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