Please find attached two patches, each under the PostgreSQL license,
one which implements page checksums vs. REL9_0_STABLE, the other which
depends on the first (i.e. requires that it be applied first) and
implements double writes. They're vs. REL9_0_STABLE because they're
extracted from vPostgres 1.0, a proprietary product currently based on
I had wanted the first patch set to be:
- Against git head, and
- Based on feedback from Simon's patch.
The checksum part does the wrong thing, namely changes the page format
and has some race conditions that Simon's latest page checksum patch
removes. There are doubtless other warts, but I decided not to let
the perfect be the enemy of the good. If that's a mistake, it's all
I tested with "make check," which I realize isn't the most thorough,
but again, this is mostly to get out the general ideas of the patches
so people have actual code to poke at.
Dan Scales <scales(at)vmware(dot)com> wrote the double write part and
extracted the page checksums from previous work by Ganesh
Venkitachalam, who's written here before. Dan will be answering
questions if I can't :) Jignesh Shah may be able to answer
performance questions, as he has been doing yeoman work on vPostgres
in that arena.
Let the brickbats begin!
Caveats (from Dan):
The attached patch implements a "double_write" option. The idea of
this option (as has been discussed) is to handle the problem of torn
writes for buffer pages by writing (almost) all buffers twice, once to
a double-write file and once to the data file. If a crash occurs,
then a buffer should always have a correct copy either in the
double-write file or in the data file, so the double-write file can be
used to correct any torn writes to the data files. The "double_write"
option can therefore be used in place of "full_page_writes", and can
not only improve performance, but also reduce the size of the WAL log.
The patch currently makes use of checksums on the data pages. As has
been pointed out, double writes only strictly require that the pages
in the double write file be checksummed, and we can fairly easily make
data checksums optional. However, if data checksums are used, then
Postgres can provide more useful messages on exactly when torn pages
have occurred. It is very likely that a torn page happened if, during
recovery, the checksum of a data page is incorrect, but a copy of the
page with a valid checksum is in the double-write file.
To achieve efficiency, the checkpoint writer and bgwriter should batch
writes to multiple pages together. Currently, there is an option
"batched_buffer_writes" that specifies how many buffers to batch at a
time. However, we may want to remove that option from view, and just
force batched_buffer_writes to a default (32) if double_writes is
In order to batch, the checkpoint writer must acquire multiple buffer
locks simultaneously as it is building up the batch. The patch does
simple deadlock detection that ends a batch early if the lock for the
next buffer that it wants to include in the batch is held. This
situation almost never happens.
Given the batching functionality, double writes by the checkpoint
writer (and bgwriter) is implemented efficiently by writing a batch of
pages to the double-write file and fsyncing, and then writing the
pages to the appropriate data files, and fsyncing all the necessary
data files. While the data fsyncing might be viewed as expensive, it
does help eliminate a lot of the fsync overhead at the end of
checkpoints. FlushRelationBuffers() and FlushDatabaseBuffers() can be
We have some other code (not included) that sorts buffers to be
checkpointed in file/block order -- this can reduce fsync overhead
further by ensuring that each batch writes to only one or a few data
The actual batch writes are done using writev(), which might have to
be replaced with equivalent code, if this is a portability issue. A
struct iocb structure is currently used for bookkeeping during the
low-level batching, since it is compatible with an async IO approach
as well (not included).
We do have to do the same double write for dirty buffer evictions by
individual backends (in BufferAlloc). This could be expensive, if
there are a lot of dirty buffer evictions (i.e. where the
checkpoint/bgwriter can generate enough clean pages for the backends).
Double writes must be done for any page which might be used after
recovery even if there was a full crash while writing the page. This
includes all writes to such pages in a checkpoint, not just the first,
since Postgres cannot do correct WAL recovery on a torn page (I
believe). Pages in temporary tables and some unlogged operations do
not require double writes. Feedback is especially welcome on whether
we have missed some kinds of pages that do/do not require double
As Jignesh has mentioned on this list, we see significant performance
gains when enabling double writes & disabling full_page_writes for
OLTP runs with sufficient buffer cache size. We are now trying to
measure some runs where the dirty buffer eviction rate by the backends
David Fetter <david(at)fetter(dot)org> http://fetter.org/
Phone: +1 415 235 3778 AIM: dfetter666 Yahoo!: dfetter
Skype: davidfetter XMPP: david(dot)fetter(at)gmail(dot)com
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