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Re: Re: JDBC Performance

From: Gunnar R|nning <gunnar(at)candleweb(dot)no>
To: Peter Mount <peter(at)retep(dot)org(dot)uk>
Cc: kientzle(at)acm(dot)org, PostgreSQL general mailing list <pgsql-general(at)postgresql(dot)org>, "Keith L(dot) Musser" <kmusser(at)idisys(dot)com>
Subject: Re: Re: JDBC Performance
Date: 2000-09-29 13:59:43
Message-ID: x6og17e1tc.fsf@thor.candleweb.no (view raw or flat)
Thread:
Lists: pgsql-general
Peter Mount <peter(at)retep(dot)org(dot)uk> writes:

> 
> Email them to me, as the modifications will break when I commit my changes
> (delayed due to stress related illness), and there's a lot of changes in
> there. I'm about to resume work in a few minutes.
> 

Okay, I wrapped up the modifications now. I'm appending the patch against
the current CVS. You can also find the patch and a precompiled version of
the driver at :

http://www.candleweb.no/~gunnar/projects/pgsql/

The interesting part is the replacement of new byte[] with an allocByte()
method called that uses a pool of different byte arrays. I first tried
using the JDK 1.2 datastructures to implement the pooling, but they had too
much overhead so I created a couple of simple and dirty implementations
instead. 

I also added ReceiveString() methods that can take byte[] array as
parameter. All the ReceiveString methods in Connection now uses one shared
byte array instead of forcing ReceiveString to allocate a new one on each
call. 

Comments and test results from others are very welcome.

Maybe I will look into doing the custom char conversion this weekend, as
the default implementation provided by Sun appears to be the current
bottleneck. As Tim Kientzle wrote in another mail, this implementation is
instatiating a new converter object every time you do a conversion. This is
is also pointed out has a bottleneck by OptimizeIT.

Regards, 

	Gunnar 

? postgresql.jar
? lazy_result.diff
? bytecache.diff
? org/postgresql/DriverClass.java
Index: org/postgresql/Connection.java
===================================================================
RCS file: /home/projects/pgsql/cvsroot/pgsql/src/interfaces/jdbc/org/postgresql/Connection.java,v
retrieving revision 1.6
diff -c -r1.6 Connection.java
*** org/postgresql/Connection.java	2000/09/12 05:09:54	1.6
--- org/postgresql/Connection.java	2000/09/29 12:54:12
***************
*** 81,86 ****
--- 81,91 ----
      // The PID an cancellation key we get from the backend process
      public int pid;
      public int ckey;
+ 
+     // This receive_sbuf should be used by the different methods
+     // that call pg_stream.ReceiveString() in this Connection, so 
+     // so we avoid uneccesary new allocations. 
+     byte receive_sbuf[] = new byte[8192];
      
      /**
       * This is called by Class.forName() from within org.postgresql.Driver
***************
*** 165,171 ****
  		// "User authentication failed"
  		//
  		throw new SQLException(pg_stream.ReceiveString
!                                        (4096, getEncoding()));
  		
  	      case 'R':
  		// Get the type of request
--- 170,176 ----
  		// "User authentication failed"
  		//
  		throw new SQLException(pg_stream.ReceiveString
!                                        (receive_sbuf, 4096, getEncoding()));
  		
  	      case 'R':
  		// Get the type of request
***************
*** 236,242 ****
  	case 'E':
  	case 'N':
             throw new SQLException(pg_stream.ReceiveString
!                                   (4096, getEncoding()));
          default:
            throw new PSQLException("postgresql.con.setup");
        }
--- 241,247 ----
  	case 'E':
  	case 'N':
             throw new SQLException(pg_stream.ReceiveString
!                                   (receive_sbuf, 4096, getEncoding()));
          default:
            throw new PSQLException("postgresql.con.setup");
        }
***************
*** 248,254 ****
  	   break;
  	case 'E':
  	case 'N':
!            throw new SQLException(pg_stream.ReceiveString(4096));
          default:
            throw new PSQLException("postgresql.con.setup");
        }
--- 253,259 ----
  	   break;
  	case 'E':
  	case 'N':
!            throw new SQLException(pg_stream.ReceiveString(receive_sbuf, 4096, getEncoding()));
          default:
            throw new PSQLException("postgresql.con.setup");
        }
***************
*** 306,312 ****
  	//currentDateStyle=i+1; // this is the index of the format
  	//}
      }
!     
      /**
       * Send a query to the backend.  Returns one of the ResultSet
       * objects.
--- 311,317 ----
  	//currentDateStyle=i+1; // this is the index of the format
  	//}
      }
! 
      /**
       * Send a query to the backend.  Returns one of the ResultSet
       * objects.
***************
*** 322,328 ****
      {
  	// added Oct 7 1998 to give us thread safety.
  	synchronized(pg_stream) {
! 	    
  	    Field[] fields = null;
  	    Vector tuples = new Vector();
  	    byte[] buf = null;
--- 327,339 ----
      {
  	// added Oct 7 1998 to give us thread safety.
  	synchronized(pg_stream) {
! 	    // Deallocate all resources in the stream associated
!  	    // with a previous request.
!  	    // This will let the driver reuse byte arrays that has already
!  	    // been allocated instead of allocating new ones in order
!  	    // to gain performance improvements.
!  	    pg_stream.deallocate();	    
! 
  	    Field[] fields = null;
  	    Vector tuples = new Vector();
  	    byte[] buf = null;
***************
*** 352,359 ****
  	    try
  		{
  		    pg_stream.SendChar('Q');
! 		    buf = sql.getBytes();
! 		    pg_stream.Send(buf);
  		    pg_stream.SendChar(0);
  		    pg_stream.flush();
  		} catch (IOException e) {
--- 363,369 ----
  	    try
  		{
  		    pg_stream.SendChar('Q');
! 		    pg_stream.Send(sql.getBytes());
  		    pg_stream.SendChar(0);
  		    pg_stream.flush();
  		} catch (IOException e) {
***************
*** 370,376 ****
  			{
  			case 'A':	// Asynchronous Notify
  			    pid = pg_stream.ReceiveInteger(4);
! 			    msg = pg_stream.ReceiveString(8192);
  			    break;
  			case 'B':	// Binary Data Transfer
  			    if (fields == null)
--- 380,387 ----
  			{
  			case 'A':	// Asynchronous Notify
  			    pid = pg_stream.ReceiveInteger(4);
! 			    msg = pg_stream.ReceiveString(receive_sbuf, 8192, 
! 							  getEncoding());
  			    break;
  			case 'B':	// Binary Data Transfer
  			    if (fields == null)
***************
*** 381,387 ****
  				tuples.addElement(tup);
  			    break;
  			case 'C':	// Command Status
! 			    recv_status = pg_stream.ReceiveString(8192);
  				
  				// Now handle the update count correctly.
  				if(recv_status.startsWith("INSERT") || recv_status.startsWith("UPDATE") || recv_status.startsWith("DELETE")) {
--- 392,400 ----
  				tuples.addElement(tup);
  			    break;
  			case 'C':	// Command Status
! 			    recv_status = 
! 				pg_stream.ReceiveString(receive_sbuf, 8192,
! 							getEncoding());
  				
  				// Now handle the update count correctly.
  				if(recv_status.startsWith("INSERT") || recv_status.startsWith("UPDATE") || recv_status.startsWith("DELETE")) {
***************
*** 423,429 ****
  				tuples.addElement(tup);
  			    break;
  			case 'E':	// Error Message
! 			    msg = pg_stream.ReceiveString(4096);
  			    final_error = new SQLException(msg);
  			    hfr = true;
  			    break;
--- 436,443 ----
  				tuples.addElement(tup);
  			    break;
  			case 'E':	// Error Message
! 			    msg = pg_stream.ReceiveString(receive_sbuf, 4096,
! 							  getEncoding());
  			    final_error = new SQLException(msg);
  			    hfr = true;
  			    break;
***************
*** 438,447 ****
  				hfr = true;
  			    break;
  			case 'N':	// Error Notification
! 			    addWarning(pg_stream.ReceiveString(4096));
  			    break;
  			case 'P':	// Portal Name
! 			    String pname = pg_stream.ReceiveString(8192);
  			    break;
  			case 'T':	// MetaData Field Description
  			    if (fields != null)
--- 452,465 ----
  				hfr = true;
  			    break;
  			case 'N':	// Error Notification
! 			    addWarning(pg_stream.ReceiveString(receive_sbuf, 
! 							       4096, 
! 							       getEncoding()));
  			    break;
  			case 'P':	// Portal Name
! 			    String pname = 
! 				pg_stream.ReceiveString(receive_sbuf, 8192, 
! 							getEncoding());
  			    break;
  			case 'T':	// MetaData Field Description
  			    if (fields != null)
***************
*** 461,466 ****
--- 479,486 ----
  	}
      }
  
+ 
+ 
      /**
       * Receive the field descriptions from the back end
       *
***************
*** 474,480 ****
  	
  	for (i = 0 ; i < nf ; ++i)
  	    {
! 		String typname = pg_stream.ReceiveString(8192);
  		int typid = pg_stream.ReceiveIntegerR(4);
  		int typlen = pg_stream.ReceiveIntegerR(2);
  		int typmod = pg_stream.ReceiveIntegerR(4);
--- 494,501 ----
  	
  	for (i = 0 ; i < nf ; ++i)
  	    {
! 		String typname = pg_stream.ReceiveString(receive_sbuf, 8192,
! 							 getEncoding());
  		int typid = pg_stream.ReceiveIntegerR(4);
  		int typlen = pg_stream.ReceiveIntegerR(2);
  		int typmod = pg_stream.ReceiveIntegerR(4);
Index: org/postgresql/PG_Stream.java
===================================================================
RCS file: /home/projects/pgsql/cvsroot/pgsql/src/interfaces/jdbc/org/postgresql/PG_Stream.java,v
retrieving revision 1.2
diff -c -r1.2 PG_Stream.java
*** org/postgresql/PG_Stream.java	2000/09/12 04:58:47	1.2
--- org/postgresql/PG_Stream.java	2000/09/29 12:54:12
***************
*** 22,28 ****
--- 22,32 ----
    private Socket connection;
    private InputStream pg_input;
    private BufferedOutputStream pg_output;
+ 
+   BytePoolDim1 bytePoolDim1 = new BytePoolDim1();
+   BytePoolDim2 bytePoolDim2 = new BytePoolDim2();
    
+ 
    /**
     * Constructor:  Connect to the PostgreSQL back end and return
     * a stream connection.
***************
*** 70,76 ****
     */
    public void SendInteger(int val, int siz) throws IOException
    {
!     byte[] buf = new byte[siz];
      
      while (siz-- > 0)
        {
--- 74,80 ----
     */
    public void SendInteger(int val, int siz) throws IOException
    {
!     byte[] buf = bytePoolDim1.allocByte(siz);
      
      while (siz-- > 0)
        {
***************
*** 94,100 ****
     */
    public void SendIntegerReverse(int val, int siz) throws IOException
    {
!     byte[] buf = new byte[siz];
      int p=0;
      while (siz-- > 0)
        {
--- 98,104 ----
     */
    public void SendIntegerReverse(int val, int siz) throws IOException
    {
!     byte[] buf = bytePoolDim1.allocByte(siz);
      int p=0;
      while (siz-- > 0)
        {
***************
*** 236,258 ****
        return n;
    }
  
!     public String ReceiveString(int maxsize) throws SQLException {
!         return ReceiveString(maxsize, null);
!     }
!   
    /**
     * Receives a null-terminated string from the backend.  Maximum of
     * maxsiz bytes - if we don't see a null, then we assume something
     * has gone wrong.
     *
     * @param encoding the charset encoding to use.
-    * @param maxsiz maximum length of string in bytes
     * @return string from back end
     * @exception SQLException if an I/O error occurs
     */
    public String ReceiveString(int maxsiz, String encoding) throws SQLException
    {
!     byte[] rst = new byte[maxsiz];
      int s = 0;
      
      try
--- 240,292 ----
        return n;
    }
  
! 
    /**
     * Receives a null-terminated string from the backend.  Maximum of
     * maxsiz bytes - if we don't see a null, then we assume something
     * has gone wrong.
     *
+    * @param maxsiz maximum length of string
+    * @return string from back end
+    * @exception SQLException if an I/O error occurs
+    */
+   public String ReceiveString(int maxsiz) throws SQLException
+   {
+     byte[] rst = bytePoolDim1.allocByte(maxsiz);
+     return ReceiveString(rst, maxsiz, null);
+   }
+ 
+   /**
+    * Receives a null-terminated string from the backend.  Maximum of
+    * maxsiz bytes - if we don't see a null, then we assume something
+    * has gone wrong.
+    *
+    * @param maxsiz maximum length of string
     * @param encoding the charset encoding to use.
     * @return string from back end
     * @exception SQLException if an I/O error occurs
     */
    public String ReceiveString(int maxsiz, String encoding) throws SQLException
    {
!     byte[] rst = bytePoolDim1.allocByte(maxsiz);
!     return ReceiveString(rst, maxsiz, encoding);
!   }
!   
!   /**
!    * Receives a null-terminated string from the backend.  Maximum of
!    * maxsiz bytes - if we don't see a null, then we assume something
!    * has gone wrong.
!    *
!    * @param rst byte array to read the String into. rst.length must 
!    *        equal to or greater than maxsize. 
!    * @param maxsiz maximum length of string in bytes
!    * @param encoding the charset encoding to use.
!    * @return string from back end
!    * @exception SQLException if an I/O error occurs
!    */
!   public String ReceiveString(byte rst[], int maxsiz, String encoding) 
!       throws SQLException
!   {
      int s = 0;
      
      try
***************
*** 262,270 ****
  	    int c = pg_input.read();
  	    if (c < 0)
  	      throw new PSQLException("postgresql.stream.eof");
! 	    else if (c == 0)
! 	      break;
! 	    else
  	      rst[s++] = (byte)c;
  	  }
  	if (s >= maxsiz)
--- 296,305 ----
  	    int c = pg_input.read();
  	    if (c < 0)
  	      throw new PSQLException("postgresql.stream.eof");
! 	    else if (c == 0) {
! 		rst[s] = 0;
! 		break;
! 	    } else
  	      rst[s++] = (byte)c;
  	  }
  	if (s >= maxsiz)
***************
*** 299,305 ****
    {
      int i, bim = (nf + 7)/8;
      byte[] bitmask = Receive(bim);
!     byte[][] answer = new byte[nf][0];
      
      int whichbit = 0x80;
      int whichbyte = 0;
--- 334,340 ----
    {
      int i, bim = (nf + 7)/8;
      byte[] bitmask = Receive(bim);
!     byte[][] answer = bytePoolDim2.allocByte(nf);
      
      int whichbit = 0x80;
      int whichbyte = 0;
***************
*** 337,343 ****
     */
    private byte[] Receive(int siz) throws SQLException
    {
!     byte[] answer = new byte[siz];
      Receive(answer,0,siz);
      return answer;
    }
--- 372,378 ----
     */
    private byte[] Receive(int siz) throws SQLException
    {
!     byte[] answer = bytePoolDim1.allocByte(siz);
      Receive(answer,0,siz);
      return answer;
    }
***************
*** 395,398 ****
--- 430,581 ----
      pg_input.close();
      connection.close();
    }
+ 
+   /**
+    * Deallocate all resources that has been associated with any previous
+    * query.
+    */
+   public void deallocate(){
+       bytePoolDim1.deallocate();
+       bytePoolDim2.deallocate();
+   }
  }
+ 
+ /**
+  * A simple and fast object pool implementation that can pool objects 
+  * of any type. This implementation is not thread safe, it is up to the users
+  * of this class to assure thread safety. 
+  */
+ class ObjectPool {
+     int cursize = 0;
+     int maxsize = 16;
+     Object arr[] = new Object[maxsize];
+     
+     public void add(Object o){
+ 	if(cursize >= maxsize){
+ 	    Object newarr[] = new Object[maxsize*2];
+ 	    System.arraycopy(arr, 0, newarr, 0, maxsize);
+ 	    maxsize = maxsize * 2;
+ 	    arr = newarr;
+ 	}
+ 	arr[cursize++] = o;
+     }
+     
+     public Object remove(){
+ 	return arr[--cursize];
+     }
+     public boolean isEmpty(){
+ 	return cursize == 0;
+     }
+     public int size(){
+ 	return cursize;
+     }
+     public void addAll(ObjectPool pool){
+ 	int srcsize = pool.size();
+ 	if(srcsize == 0)
+ 	    return;
+ 	int totalsize = srcsize + cursize;
+ 	if(totalsize > maxsize){
+ 	    Object newarr[] = new Object[totalsize*2];
+ 	    System.arraycopy(arr, 0, newarr, 0, cursize);
+ 	    maxsize = maxsize = totalsize * 2;
+ 	    arr = newarr;
+ 	}
+ 	System.arraycopy(pool.arr, 0, arr, cursize, srcsize);
+ 	cursize = totalsize;
+     }
+     public void clear(){
+ 	    cursize = 0;
+     }
+ }
+ 
+ /**
+  * A simple and efficient class to pool one dimensional byte arrays
+  * of different sizes.
+  */
+ class BytePoolDim1 {
+     int maxsize = 256;
+     ObjectPool notusemap[] = new ObjectPool[maxsize];
+     ObjectPool inusemap[] = new ObjectPool[maxsize];
+     byte binit[][] = new byte[maxsize][0];
+ 
+     public BytePoolDim1(){
+ 	for(int i = 0; i < maxsize; i++){
+ 	    binit[i] = new byte[i];
+ 	    inusemap[i] = new ObjectPool();
+ 	    notusemap[i] = new ObjectPool();
+ 	}
+     }
+ 
+     public byte[] allocByte(int size){
+ 	if(size > maxsize){
+ 	    return new byte[size];
+ 	}
+ 
+ 	ObjectPool not_usel = notusemap[size];
+ 	ObjectPool in_usel = inusemap[size];
+ 	byte b[] = null;
+ 
+ 	if(!not_usel.isEmpty()) {
+ 	    Object o = not_usel.remove();
+ 	    b = (byte[]) o;
+ 	} else 
+ 	    b = new byte[size];
+ 	in_usel.add(b);
+ 	    
+ 	return b;
+     }
+ 	
+     public void deallocate(){
+ 	for(int i = 0; i < maxsize; i++){
+ 	    notusemap[i].addAll(inusemap[i]);
+ 	    inusemap[i].clear();
+ 	}
+ 
+     }
+ }
+ 
+ 
+   
+ /**
+  * A simple and efficient class to pool two dimensional byte arrays
+  * of different sizes.
+  */
+ class BytePoolDim2 {
+     int maxsize = 32;
+     ObjectPool notusemap[] = new ObjectPool[maxsize];
+     ObjectPool inusemap[] = new ObjectPool[maxsize];
+ 
+     public BytePoolDim2(){
+ 	for(int i = 0; i < maxsize; i++){
+ 	    inusemap[i] = new ObjectPool();
+ 	    notusemap[i] = new ObjectPool();
+ 	}
+     }
+ 
+     public byte[][] allocByte(int size){
+ 	if(size > maxsize){
+ 	    return new byte[size][0];
+ 	}
+ 	ObjectPool not_usel = notusemap[size];
+ 	ObjectPool in_usel =  inusemap[size];
+ 
+ 	byte b[][] = null;
+ 
+ 	if(!not_usel.isEmpty()) {
+ 	    Object o = not_usel.remove();
+ 	    b = (byte[][]) o;
+ 	} else 
+ 	    b = new byte[size][0];
+ 	in_usel.add(b);
+ 	return b;
+     }
+ 	
+     public void deallocate(){
+ 	for(int i = 0; i < maxsize; i++){
+ 	    notusemap[i].addAll(inusemap[i]);
+ 	    inusemap[i].clear();
+ 	}
+     }
+ }
+ 

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