On Tue, 9 Dec 2008, Scott Carey wrote:
> My system is now CPU bound, the I/O can do sequential reads of more than
> 1.2GB/sec but Postgres can't do a seqscan 30% as fast because it eats up
> CPU like crazy just reading and identifying tuples... In addition to the
> fadvise patch, postgres needs to merge adjacent I/O's into larger ones
> to reduce the overhead.
Do you have any profile data to back that up? I think it's more likely
that bottlenecks are on the tuple processing side of things as you also
suggested. There's really no sense guessing; one quick session with
something like oprofile would be more informative than any amount of
speculation on what's going on.
> Additionally, the "If your operating system has any reasonable caching
> itself" comment earlier in this conversation --- Linux (2.6.18, Centos
> 5.2) does NOT. I can easily make it spend 100% CPU in system time
> trying to figure out what to do with the system cache for an hour.
Have you ever looked into how much memory ends up showing up as
"Writeback" in /proc/meminfo when this happens? The biggest problem with
that kernel out of the box on the kind of workload you're describing is
that it will try and buffer way too much on the write side by default,
which can easily get you into the sort of ugly situations you describe.
I regularly adjust that kernel to lower dirty_ratio in particular
dramatically from the default of 40 to keep that from happening. I did a
whole blog entry on one of those if you're not familiar with this
particular bit of painful defaults already:
> I feel confident in saying that in about a year, I could spec out a
> medium sized budget for hardware ($25k) for almost any postgres setup
> and make it almost pure CPU bound.
The largest database I manage is running on a Sun X4500, which is right at
that price point. I've never seen it not be CPU bound. Even though
people are pulling data that's spread across a few TB of disk, the only
time I ever see it straining to keep up with something there's always a
single CPU pegged.
* Greg Smith gsmith(at)gregsmith(dot)com http://www.gregsmith.com Baltimore, MD
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