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Re: IN() statement values order makes 2x performance hit

From: Alexey Kupershtokh <alexey(dot)kupershtokh(at)gmail(dot)com>
To: pgsql-performance(at)postgresql(dot)org
Subject: Re: IN() statement values order makes 2x performance hit
Date: 2008-05-29 09:52:59
Message-ID: 483E7CFB.7010800@gmail.com (view raw or flat)
Thread:
Lists: pgsql-performance
Thanks for the response.
I've taken a look at this feature. But it seems unapplicable to my case: 
this table is not a many2many relation which seems the most common case 
of the intarray usage.
The table just stores an information about items (rss posts): what feeds 
(rss) are they from, and their publication date. Id in the table is PK.

Oleg Bartunov wrote:
> You may try contrib/intarray, which we developed specially for
> denormalization.
>
> Oleg
> On Thu, 29 May 2008, Alexey Kupershtokh wrote:
>
>> Hello everybody!
>>
>> I have found a performance issue with 2 equivalent queries stably taking
>> different (~x2) time to finish. In just a few words it can be described
>> like this: if you have a lot of values in an IN() statement, you should
>> put most heavy (specifying most number of rows) ids first.
>> This is mostly just a bug submit, than looking for help.
>>
>> So this is what I have:
>>  *  RHEL
>>  *  PostgreSQL 8.3.1
>>  *  A table ext_feeder_item with ~4.6M records.
>>     kia=# \d+ ext_feeder_item;
>>     Table "public.ext_feeder_item"
>>     Column | Type | Modifiers | Description
>> ----------+--------------------------+------------------------------------------ 
>>
>>     --------------------+-------------
>>     id | bigint | not null default
>>     nextval('ext_feeder_item_id_seq'::regclass) |
>>     feed_id | bigint | not null |
>>     pub_date | timestamp with time zone | |
>>     Indexes:
>>     "ext_feeder_item_pkey" PRIMARY KEY, btree (id)
>>     "ext_feeder_item_feed_id_pub_date_idx" btree (feed_id, pub_date)
>>     "ext_feeder_item_idx" btree (feed_id)
>>     Triggers:
>>     ....
>>     Has OIDs: no
>>  *  Statistics for the fields feed_id and pub_date are set to 1000;
>>  *  The table have just been vacuumed and analyzed.
>>  *  A simple query to the table:
>>     SELECT
>>     id
>>     FROM
>>     ext_feeder_item AS i
>>     WHERE
>>     i.feed_id IN (...)
>>     ORDER BY pub_date DESC, id DESC
>>     LIMIT 11 OFFSET 0;
>>
>>     with many (~1200) ids in the IN() statement.
>>  *  The count of rows distribution for these ids (may be thought of as
>>     foreign keys in this table) is the following:
>>     id = 54461: ~180000 - actually the most heavy id in the whole table.
>>     other ids: a single id at most specifies 2032 rows; 6036 rows total.
>>  *  If I perform a query with
>>     IN(54461, ...)
>>     it stably (5 attempts) takes 4.5..4.7 secs. to perform.
>>     QUERY PLAN
>>     Limit  (cost=1463104.22..1463104.25 rows=11 width=16) (actual
>>     time=4585.420..4585.452 rows=11 loops=1)
>>       ->  Sort  (cost=1463104.22..1464647.29 rows=617228 width=16)
>>     (actual time=4585.415..4585.425 rows=11 loops=1)
>>             Sort Key: pub_date, id
>>             Sort Method:  top-N heapsort  Memory: 17kB
>>             ->  Bitmap Heap Scan on ext_feeder_item i
>>     (cost=13832.40..1449341.79 rows=617228 width=16) (actual
>>     time=894.622..4260.441 rows=185625 loops=1)
>>                   Recheck Cond: (feed_id = ANY ('{54461,
>>     ...}'::bigint[]))
>>                   ->  Bitmap Index Scan on ext_feeder_item_idx
>>     (cost=0.00..13678.10 rows=617228 width=0) (actual
>>     time=884.686..884.686 rows=185625 loops=1)
>>                         Index Cond: (feed_id = ANY ('{54461,
>>     ...}'::bigint[]))
>>     Total runtime: 4585.852 ms
>>  *  If I perform a query with
>>     IN(..., 54461)
>>     it stably (5 attempts) takes 9.3..9.5 secs. to perform.
>>     QUERY PLAN
>>     Limit  (cost=1463104.22..1463104.25 rows=11 width=16) (actual
>>     time=9330.267..9330.298 rows=11 loops=1)
>>       ->  Sort  (cost=1463104.22..1464647.29 rows=617228 width=16)
>>     (actual time=9330.263..9330.273 rows=11 loops=1)
>>             Sort Key: pub_date, id
>>             Sort Method:  top-N heapsort  Memory: 17kB
>>             ->  Bitmap Heap Scan on ext_feeder_item i
>>     (cost=13832.40..1449341.79 rows=617228 width=16) (actual
>>     time=1018.401..8971.029 rows=185625 loops=1)
>>                   Recheck Cond: (feed_id = ANY ('{...
>>     ,54461}'::bigint[]))
>>                   ->  Bitmap Index Scan on ext_feeder_item_idx
>>     (cost=0.00..13678.10 rows=617228 width=0) (actual
>>     time=1008.791..1008.791 rows=185625 loops=1)
>>                         Index Cond: (feed_id = ANY ('{...
>>     ,54461}'::bigint[]))
>>     Total runtime: 9330.729 ms
>> I don't know what are the roots of the problem, but I think that some
>> symptomatic healing could be applied: the PostgreSQL could sort the IDs
>> due to the statistics.
>> So currently I tend to select the IDs from another table ordering them
>> due to their weights: it's easy for me thanks to denormalization.
>>
>> Also I would expect from PostgreSQL that it sorted the values to make
>> index scan more sequential, but this expectation already conflicts with
>> the bug described above :)
>>
>>
>
>     Regards,
>         Oleg
> _____________________________________________________________
> Oleg Bartunov, Research Scientist, Head of AstroNet (www.astronet.ru),
> Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, Russia
> Internet: oleg(at)sai(dot)msu(dot)su, http://www.sai.msu.su/~megera/
> phone: +007(495)939-16-83, +007(495)939-23-83

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