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Odd problem with planner choosing seq scan

From: Colin McGuigan <magua(at)speakeasy(dot)net>
To: pgsql-performance(at)postgresql(dot)org
Subject: Odd problem with planner choosing seq scan
Date: 2007-04-21 05:58:07
Message-ID: 4629A7EF.6070506@speakeasy.net (view raw or flat)
Thread:
Lists: pgsql-performance
I have two tables, staff (530 rows) and location (2.5 million rows).  I 
do a query that joins the two together, as so:

SELECT s.ProprietorId, l.LocationId, s.RoleId
	FROM Location l
	INNER JOIN (
		SELECT *
		FROM Staff
	) s ON l.ProprietorId = s.ProprietorId
	WHERE s.UserId = 123456
	AND s.LocationId IS NULL

Ignore the fact that it's a subquery -- the query plan is the same if 
its a straight JOIN, and I'm going to use the subquery to demonstrate 
something interesting.

Anyways, this takes ~45 seconds to run, and returns 525 rows (just about 
1 per record in the Staff table; 5 records are not for that user are so 
are excluded).  The EXPLAIN is:

Nested Loop  (cost=243.50..34315.32 rows=10286 width=12)
   ->  Subquery Scan s  (cost=0.00..21.93 rows=1 width=8)
         Filter: ((userid = 123456) AND (locationid IS NULL))
         ->  Limit  (cost=0.00..15.30 rows=530 width=102)
               ->  Seq Scan on staff  (cost=0.00..15.30 rows=530 width=102)
   ->  Bitmap Heap Scan on "location" l  (cost=243.50..34133.68 
rows=12777 width=8)
         Recheck Cond: (s.proprietorid = l.proprietorid)
         ->  Bitmap Index Scan on idx_location_proprietorid_locationid 
(cost=0.00..240.30 rows=12777 width=0)
               Index Cond: (s.proprietorid = l.proprietorid)

The EXPLAIN ANALYZE is:

Hash Join  (cost=23.16..129297.25 rows=2022281 width=12) (actual 
time=62.315..48632.406 rows=525 loops=1)
   Hash Cond: (l.proprietorid = staff.proprietorid)
   ->  Seq Scan on "location" l  (cost=0.00..101337.11 rows=2057111 
width=8) (actual time=0.056..44504.431 rows=2057111 loops=1)
   ->  Hash  (cost=16.63..16.63 rows=523 width=8) (actual 
time=46.411..46.411 rows=525 loops=1)
         ->  Seq Scan on staff  (cost=0.00..16.63 rows=523 width=8) 
(actual time=0.022..45.428 rows=525 loops=1)
               Filter: ((userid = 123456) AND (locationid IS NULL))
Total runtime: 48676.282 ms

Now, the interesting thing is, if I add "LIMIT 5000" into that inner 
subquery on the staff table, it no longer seq scans location, and the 
whole thing runs in less than a second.

SELECT s.ProprietorId, l.LocationId, s.RoleId
	FROM Location l
	INNER JOIN (
		SELECT *
		FROM Staff
		LIMIT 5000 	-- Only change; remember, this table  						-- only has 
530 rows
	) s ON l.ProprietorId = s.ProprietorId
	WHERE s.UserId = 123456
	AND s.LocationId IS NULL

EXPLAIN:

Nested Loop  (cost=243.50..34315.32 rows=10286 width=12)
   ->  Subquery Scan s  (cost=0.00..21.93 rows=1 width=8)
         Filter: ((userid = 123456) AND (locationid IS NULL))
         ->  Limit  (cost=0.00..15.30 rows=530 width=102)
               ->  Seq Scan on staff  (cost=0.00..15.30 rows=530 width=102)
   ->  Bitmap Heap Scan on "location" l  (cost=243.50..34133.68 
rows=12777 width=8)
         Recheck Cond: (s.proprietorid = l.proprietorid)
         ->  Bitmap Index Scan on idx_location_proprietorid_locationid 
(cost=0.00..240.30 rows=12777 width=0)
               Index Cond: (s.proprietorid = l.proprietorid)

EXPLAIN ANALYZE:

Nested Loop  (cost=243.50..34315.32 rows=10286 width=12) (actual 
time=74.097..569.372 rows=525 loops=1)
   ->  Subquery Scan s  (cost=0.00..21.93 rows=1 width=8) (actual 
time=16.452..21.092 rows=525 loops=1)
         Filter: ((userid = 123456) AND (locationid IS NULL))
         ->  Limit  (cost=0.00..15.30 rows=530 width=102) (actual 
time=16.434..19.128 rows=530 loops=1)
               ->  Seq Scan on staff  (cost=0.00..15.30 rows=530 
width=102) (actual time=16.429..17.545 rows=530 loops=1)
   ->  Bitmap Heap Scan on "location" l  (cost=243.50..34133.68 
rows=12777 width=8) (actual time=1.027..1.029 rows=1 loops=525)
         Recheck Cond: (s.proprietorid = l.proprietorid)
         ->  Bitmap Index Scan on idx_location_proprietorid_locationid 
(cost=0.00..240.30 rows=12777 width=0) (actual time=0.151..0.151 rows=1 
loops=525)
               Index Cond: (s.proprietorid = l.proprietorid)
Total runtime: 570.868 ms

This confuses me.  As far as I can tell, the EXPLAIN output is the same 
regardless of whether LIMIT 5000 is in there or not.  However, I don't 
know why a) the EXPLAIN ANALYZE plan is different in the first case, 
where there is no LIMIT 5000, or b) why adding a LIMIT 5000 onto a table 
would change anything when the table has only 530 rows in it. 
Furthermore, I can repeat this experiment over and over, so I know that 
its not caching.  Removing the LIMIT 5000 returns performance to > 45 
seconds.

I've ANALYZEd both tables, so I'm relatively certain statistics are up 
to date.  This is test data, so there are no ongoing 
inserts/updates/deletes -- only selects.

I'd really prefer this query run in < 1 second rather than > 45, but I'd 
really like to do that without having hacks like adding in pointless 
LIMIT clauses.

Any help would be much appreciated.

--Colin McGuigan

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