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Re: Tell postgres which index to use?

From: John Arbash Meinel <john(at)arbash-meinel(dot)com>
To: Silke Trissl <trissl(at)informatik(dot)hu-berlin(dot)de>
Cc: Josh Berkus <josh(at)agliodbs(dot)com>, pgsql-performance(at)postgresql(dot)org
Subject: Re: Tell postgres which index to use?
Date: 2005-02-09 18:36:38
Message-ID: 420A5836.4080605@arbash-meinel.com (view raw or flat)
Thread:
Lists: pgsql-performance
Silke Trissl wrote:

> Sorry,
>
>>
>>> is there a way to tell Postgres which index to use when a query is
>>> issued in 7.4.2?
>>
>>
>>
>> PostgreSQL adjusts usage through global parameters, statistics, and
>> periodic ANALYZE.   Please post an EXPLAIN ANALYZE (not just EXPLAIN)
>> for your query and people on this list can help you with your
>> specific problem.
>
>
> here are the plans, but still I would like to tell Postgres to use an
> index or the join method (like HINT in ORACLE).
>
>>
>
> First the vacuum
>   db=# vacuum full analyze;
>   VACUUM
>
> Then the query for the first time with analyze
>   db=# EXPLAIN ANALYZE
>   db-# SELECT chain.pdb_id, chain.id FROM PDB_ENTRY, CHAIN
>        WHERE PDB_ENTRY.resolution > 0.0 and PDB_ENTRY.resolution < 1.7
>        AND PDB_ENTRY.id = CHAIN.pdb_id;
>                                                        QUERY PLAN
> -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
>
>  Hash Join  (cost=1426.75..5210.52 rows=7533 width=8) (actual
> time=77.712..399.108 rows=5798 loops=1)
>    Hash Cond: ("outer".pdb_id = "inner".id)
>    ->  Seq Scan on "chain"  (cost=0.00..3202.11 rows=67511 width=8)
> (actual time=0.048..151.885 rows=67511 loops=1)
>    ->  Hash  (cost=1418.68..1418.68 rows=3226 width=4) (actual
> time=77.062..77.062 rows=0 loops=1)

This seems to be at least one of the problems. The planner thinks there
are going to be 3000+ rows, but in reality there are 0.

>          ->  Seq Scan on pdb_entry  (cost=0.00..1418.68 rows=3226
> width=4) (actual time=0.118..71.956 rows=3329 loops=1)
>                Filter: ((resolution > 0::double precision) AND
> (resolution < 1.7::double precision))
>  Total runtime: 404.434 ms
> (7 rows)
>
> And then try to avoid the Hash Join
>
>   db=# SET ENABLE_hashjoin = OFF;
>   SET
>   db=# EXPLAIN ANALYZE
>   db-# SELECT chain.pdb_id, chain.id FROM PDB_ENTRY, CHAIN
>        WHERE PDB_ENTRY.resolution > 0.0 and PDB_ENTRY.resolution < 1.7
>        AND PDB_ENTRY.id = CHAIN.pdb_id;
>                                                                 QUERY
> PLAN
> -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
>
>  Merge Join  (cost=9163.85..11100.74 rows=7533 width=8) (actual
> time=606.505..902.740 rows=5798 loops=1)
>    Merge Cond: ("outer".id = "inner".pdb_id)
>    ->  Index Scan using pdb_entry_pkey on pdb_entry
> (cost=0.00..1516.03 rows=3226 width=4) (actual time=0.440..102.912
> rows=3329 loops=1)
>          Filter: ((resolution > 0::double precision) AND (resolution <
> 1.7::double precision))
>    ->  Sort  (cost=9163.85..9332.63 rows=67511 width=8) (actual
> time=605.838..694.190 rows=67501 loops=1)
>          Sort Key: "chain".pdb_id
>          ->  Seq Scan on "chain"  (cost=0.00..3202.11 rows=67511
> width=8) (actual time=0.064..225.859 rows=67511 loops=1)
>  Total runtime: 911.024 ms
> (8 rows)
>
> And finally timewise the fastest method, but not costwise. Even for
> almost full table joins, this method is the fastest.
>
>   db=# SET ENABLE_mergejoin = off;
>   SET
>   db=# EXPLAIN ANALYZE
>   db-# SELECT chain.pdb_id, chain.id FROM PDB_ENTRY, CHAIN
>        WHERE PDB_ENTRY.resolution > 0.0 and PDB_ENTRY.resolution < 1.7
>        AND PDB_ENTRY.id = CHAIN.pdb_id;
>                                                             QUERY PLAN
> -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
>
>  Nested Loop  (cost=0.00..23849.81 rows=7533 width=8) (actual
> time=0.341..198.162 rows=5798 loops=1)
>    ->  Seq Scan on pdb_entry  (cost=0.00..1418.68 rows=3226 width=4)
> (actual time=0.145..78.177 rows=3329 loops=1)
>          Filter: ((resolution > 0::double precision) AND (resolution <
> 1.7::double precision))
>    ->  Index Scan using chain_pdb_id_ind on "chain"  (cost=0.00..6.87
> rows=6 width=8) (actual time=0.021..0.027 rows=2 loops=3329)
>          Index Cond: ("outer".id = "chain".pdb_id)
>  Total runtime: 204.105 ms
> (6 rows)

I'm guessing the filter is more selective than postgres thinks it is (0
<> 1.7).  You might try increasing the statistics of that column, you
might also try playing with your random_page_cost to make index scans
relatively cheaper (than seq scans).
It might be an issue that your effective_cache_size isn't quite right,
which makes postgres think most things are on disk, when in reality they
are in memory (which also makes index scans much cheaper).

Also, this query may sort itself out in time. As the tables grow, the
relative fraction that you desire probably decreases, which makes index
scans more attractive.

John
=:->

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