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Re: Dynamic Partitioning using Segment Visibility Maps

From: Robert Treat <xzilla(at)users(dot)sourceforge(dot)net>
To: Markus Schiltknecht <markus(at)bluegap(dot)ch>
Cc: Simon Riggs <simon(at)2ndquadrant(dot)com>, pgsql-hackers(at)postgresql(dot)org, Andrew Sullivan <ajs(at)crankycanuck(dot)ca>
Subject: Re: Dynamic Partitioning using Segment Visibility Maps
Date: 2008-01-05 21:30:04
Message-ID: 200801051630.04706.xzilla@users.sourceforge.net (view raw or flat)
Thread:
Lists: pgsql-hackers
On Saturday 05 January 2008 14:02, Markus Schiltknecht wrote:
> >> To satisfy all the different requirements of partitioning with segments
> >> based partitioning, we'd have to allow a table to span multiple table
> >> spaces. I'm not very keen on going that way.
> >
> > Why?
>
> Uh.. if a table (RELKIND_RELATION) can only span one table space, as it
> is now, all of its segments are in the same table space. I don't quite
> call that partitioning. Well, sure, you could call it so, but then, each
> and every Postgres table is already partitioned in 1G segments.
>
> It all depends on the definitions, but in my world, horizontal
> partitioning for databases involves multiple table spaces (and is quite
> useless without that). Calling anything else partitioning is confusing,
> IMO.

I'm not following this.  If we can work out a scheme, I see no reason not to 
allow a single table to span multiple tablespaces.  Do you see a problem with 
that?

>
> > So the one thing that always scares me about these "define it all and let
> > the database sort it out" methods is they seem to lead to cases where the
> > system ends up rewriting the data to fit into some new partition layout.
>
> That holds true no matter if you shuffle between segments or relations.
> To be able to let the DBA define an exact split point, the database
> *will* have to shuffle tuples around. Why does that scare you? It's a
> regular database system's maintenance procedure.
>

It's a question of control.... see below. 

> > One thing
> > that is nice about the current partitioning scheme is you can control the
> > impact of this behavior in these scenarios, but moving around small
> > portions of the table at a time.
>
> Uh.. I'm not quite following. What "current partitioning scheme" are you
> referring to?
>

The current, constraint exclusion/ inheritence based, partitioning we have now 
in postgresql. 

> Why should that not be possible with other schemes? Moving the split
> point between two partitions involves moving tuples around, no matter if
> you are going to move them between segments or between relations
> building the partitions.
>

The difference is that, if I currently have a table split by month, I 
can "re-partition" it into weekly segments, and only shuffle one months data 
at a time minimize impact on the system while I shuffle it. This can even be 
used to do dynamic management, where data from the current month is archived 
by day, data from the past year by week, and data beyond that done monthly.    

On many other databases, if you change the partition scheme, it requires 
exclusive locks and a shuffleing of all of the data, even data whose 
partitions arent being redefined.  Even worse are systems like mysql, where 
you need to rewrite the indexes as well.  To me, these requirements always 
seem like show stoppers; I generally can't afford to lock a table while the 
database rewrites a billion rows of data. 

> > More to the point (I think) is that people define access to the data
> > based on the meaning of the data, not how it is stored on disk.  For
> > example, in some tables we only need to be active on 1 months worth of
> > data... how that is laid out on disk (# partitions, which tablespaces) is
> > a means to the end of working actively on 1 months worth of data. I can't
> > think of many cases where people would actually say the want to work
> > actively on the most recent GB of data.
>
> Agreed. I'd say that's why the DBA needs to be able to define the split
> point between partitions: only he knows the meaning of the data.
>
> >> To me, both of SVM and
> >> SE look much more like an optimization for certain special cases and
> >> don't have much to do with partitioning.
> >
> > Even if this were true, it might still be a useful optimization.
>
> Possibly, yes. To me, the use case seems pretty narrow, though. For
> example it doesn't affect index scans much.
>
> > One table I
> > am thinking of in particular in my system has one query we need to run
> > across partitions, which ends up doing a slew of bitmap index scans for
> > all the partitions. If using segment exclusion on it meant that I could
> > get a global index to help that query, I'd be happy.
>
> As proposed, Segment Exclusion works only on exactly one table. Thus, if
> you already have your data partitioned into multiple relations, it most
> probably won't affect your setup much. It certainly has nothing to do
> with what I understand by 'global index' (that's an index spanning
> multiple tables, right?).
>

In a more general sense, a global index is a an index that spans multiple 
partitions, as opposed to a local index, which is an index on specific 
partitions; postgresql current supports the latter, not the former.

In any case, my thinking is if we had the segment exclusion technique, I could 
convert that partitioned table into a regular table again, use segment 
exclusion to handle what is currently handled by partitions, and create 
a "global index" across all the other data for that other, currently killer, 
query. 

-- 
Robert Treat
Build A Brighter LAMP :: Linux Apache {middleware} PostgreSQL

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