Andrew and I got together and worked out a more detailed idea of how we
want to add enums to the postgresql core. This follows on from his
original enumkit prototype last year . Here's a more formal proposal
/ design with what we came up with. Comments / criticism hereby solicited.
How they will work (once created) is more or less the same as last time
with the enumkit, with the exception of how they're created.
Enum types will be created with a specialised version of the CREATE TYPE
CREATE TYPE rgb AS ENUM ('red', 'green', 'blue');
They can then be used as column types, being input in quoted string form
as with other user types:
CREATE TABLE enumtest (col rgb);
INSERT INTO enumtest VALUES ('red');
Input is to be case sensitive, and ordering is to be in the definition
order, not the collation order of the text values (ie 'red' < 'green' in
the example above). See the original thread for more discussion and
The implementation will work as below. I've included something of a list
of stuff to do as well.
On disk, enums will occupy 4 bytes: the high 22 bits will be an enum
identifier, with the bottom 10 bits being the enum value. This allows
1024 values for a given enum, and 2^22 different enum types, both of
which should be heaps. The exact distribution of bits doesn't matter all
that much, we just picked some that we were comfortable with.
The identifier is required as output functions are not fed information
about which exact type they are being asked to format (see below).
The creation of a new pg_enum catalog is required. This will hold:
- the type OID for the enum, from pg_type
- the enum identifier for on disk storage
- the enum values in definition order, as an array of text values
The CREATE TYPE command will create a row in pg_type and a row in
pg_enum. We will get a new enum id by scanning pg_enum and looking for
the first unused value, rather than using a sequence, to make reuse of
enum ids more predictable.
Two new syscaches on pg_enum will be created to simplify lookup in the
i/o functions: one indexed by type oid for the input function, and one
indexed by enum id for the output function.
All functions will be builtins; there will be no duplicate entries of
them in pg_proc as was required for the enumkit.
The i/o functions will both cache enum info in the same way that the
domain and composite type i/o functions do, by attaching the data to the
fcinfo->flinfo->fn_extra pointer. The input function will look up the
enum data in the syscache using the type oid that it will be passed, and
cache it in a hashtable or binary tree for easy repeated lookup. The
output function will look up the enum data in the syscache using the
enum id stripped from the high 22 bits of the on-disk value and cache
the data as a straight array for easy access, with the enum value being
used as a index into the array.
The other functions will all work pretty much like they did in the
enumkit, with comparison operators more or less treating the enum as its
The grammar will have to be extended to support the new CREATE TYPE
syntax. This should not require making ENUM a reserved word. Likewise
psql will be extended to learn the new grammar. There's probably a bit
of work to do in DROP TYPE to make sure it deletes rows from pg_enum
pg_dump must be taught how to dump enums properly.
We'll need some regression tests, maybe including one in one of the PL
testsuites to ensure that the io functions work happily when called from
a non-standard direction.
While we would really like to have had a 2 byte representation on disk
(or even 1 for most cases), with the stored value being *just* the enum
ordinal and not containing any type info about the enum type itself,
this is difficult. Since the output function cleanup  , postgresql
doesn't pass through the expected output type to output functions. This
makes it difficult to tell the difference between e.g. the first value
of the various enums, which would all have an integer representation of
0. We could have gone down the path of having the output function look
up its expected type from the fcinfo->flinfo struct, as Martijn's tagged
types do , but that would have required extra entries in pg_proc for
every single enum. Alternatively we could have stored the full enum type
oid on disk, but that would have blown out the on-disk representation to
5 or 6 bytes. The given approach of having a smaller enum id and the
enum ordinal value stored in the 4 bytes seems a reasonable tradeoff
given the current constraints.
To preempt some questions (particularly some which came up in the
enumkit discussion), here's a list of stuff which will *not* be
implemented in the initial patch (and quite possibly never):
- Support for ALTER TYPE to allow adding / modifying values etc. For
the time being you'll just have to create a new type, do a bunch of
ALTER TABLE commands, DROP the old type and rename the new one if you
want the old name back.
- Inline column enum declarations a la MySQL. While this feature might
allow easier migration from MySQL, and we could theoretically do it by
creating an anonymous type when creating the table, the cleanup when the
column/table are dropped is a real problem, and pg_dump has to get a lot
smarter. Given the ugliness of suppporting something similar with SERIAL
columns , this is definitely not on the cards anytime soon.
- Ordering by text value rather than the declaration order. If you
want this, you really want a varchar domain instead. Or alternately you
can order by e.g. colname::text if that does what you want. Doing
something like that sounds suspiciously like ordering something for
human consumption, though, which sounds like a really fast way to make
your application difficult to localize. Anyway, if that's the only
ordering you'll ever want, just define the values in alphabetical order. :)
- Access to the internal integer representation. If you need to modify
the values used or want to know what the integer is, use a lookup table
instead. Enums are the wrong abstraction for you.
Comments? Particularly on implementation strategy; the functionality was
thrashed out pretty well last time around.
Tom "unholy chimera" Dunstan
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