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Re: Tablespaces

From: Barry Lind <blind(at)xythos(dot)com>
To: Gavin Sherry <swm(at)linuxworld(dot)com(dot)au>
Cc: pgsql-hackers(at)postgresql(dot)org
Subject: Re: Tablespaces
Date: 2004-02-26 16:53:24
Message-ID: 403E2484.8090009@xythos.com (view raw or flat)
Thread:
Lists: pgsql-hackerspgsql-hackers-win32
Gavin,

After creating a tablespace what (if any) changes can be done to it. 
Can you DROP a tablespace, or once created will it always exist?  Can 
you RENAME a tablespace?  Can you change the location of a tablespace 
(i.e you did a disk reorg and move the contents to a different location 
and now want to point to the new location)?  What are the permissions 
necessary to create a tablespace (can any use connected to the database 
create a tablespace, or only superuser, or ...)?

Overall this will be a great addition to postgres.  I am looking forward 
to this feature.

thanks,
--Barry


Gavin Sherry wrote:
> Hi all,
> 
> I've been looking at implementing table spaces for 7.5. Some notes and
> implementation details follow.
> 
> ------
> 
> Type of table space:
> 
> There are many different table space implementations in relational
> database management systems. In my implementation, a table space in
> PostgreSQL will be the location of a directory on the file system in
> which files backing database objects can be stored. Global tables and
> non 'data' objects (WAL, CLOG, config files) will all remain in $PGDATA.
> $PGDATA/base will be the default table space.
> 
> A given table space will be identified by a unique table space name. I
> haven't decided if 'unique' should mean database-wide unique or
> cross-database unique. It seems to me that we might run into problems
> with CREATE DATABASE ... TEMPLATE = <database with table spaces> if the
> uniqueness of table spaces is limited to the database level.
> 
> A table space parameter will be added to DDL commands which create
> physical database objects (CREATE DATABASE/INDEX/TABLE/SEQUENCE) and to
> CREATE SCHEMA. The associated routines, as well as the corresponding DROP
> commands will need to be updated. Adding the ability to ALTER <object>
> TABLESPACE <name> seems a little painful. Would people use it? Comments?
> 
> When an object is created the system will resolve the table space the
> object is stored in as follows: if the table space paramater is passed to
> the DDL command, then the object is stored in that table space (given
> validation of the table space, etc). If it is not passed, the object
> inherits its "parent's" table space where the parent/child hierarchy is as
> follows: database > schema > table > [index|sequence]. So, if you issued:
> 
> 	create table foo.bar (...);
> 
> We would first not that there is no TABLESPACE <name>, then cascade to
> the table space for the schema 'foo' (and possibly cascade to the table
> space for the database). A database which wasn't created with an explicit
> table space will be created under the default table space. This ensures
> backward compatibility.
> 
> 
> Creating a table space:
> 
> A table space is a directory structure. The directory structure is as
> follows:
> 
> [swm(at)dev /path/to/tblspc]$ ls
> OID1/	OID2/
> 
> OID1 and OID2 are the OIDs of databases which have created a table space
> against this file system location. In this respect, a table space
> resembles $PGDATA/base. I thought it useful to keep this kind of
> namespace mechanism in place so that administrators do not need to create
> hierarchies of names on different partitions if they want multiple
> databases to use the same partition.
> 
> The actual creation of the table space will be done with:
> 
> 	CREATE TABLE SPACE <name> LOCATION </path/to/tblspc>;
> 
> Before creating the table space we must:
> 
> 1) Check if the directory exists. If it does, create a sub directory as
> the OID of the current database.
> 
> 2) Alternatively, if the directory doesn't exist, attempt to create it,
> then the sub directory.
> 
> I wonder if a file, such as PG_TBLSPC, should be added to the table space
> directory so that, in the case of an existing non-empty directory, we can
> attempt to test if the directory is being used for something else and
> error out. Seems like:
> 
> CREATE TABLESPACE tbl1 LOCATION '/var/'
> 
> which will result in something like '/var/123443' is a bad idea. Then
> again, the user should know better. Comments?
> 
> If everything goes well, we add an entry to pg_tablespace with the table
> space location and name (and and OID).
> 
> 
> Tying it all together:
> 
> The catalogs pg_database, pg_namespace, and pg_class will have a 'tblspc'
> field. This will be the OID of the table space the object resides in, or 0
> (default table space). Since we can then resolve relid/relname, schema and
> database to a tablespace, there aren't too many cases when extra logic
> needs to be added to the IO framework. In fact, most of it is taken care
> of because of the abstraction of relpath().
> 
> The creation of table spaces will need to be recorded in xlog in the same
> way that files are in heap_create() with the corresponding delete logic
> incase of ABORT.
> 
> 
> Postmaster startup:
> 
> Ideally, the postmaster at startup should go into each tblspc/databaseoid
> directory and check for a postmaster.pid file to see if some other
> instance is touching the files we're interested in. This will require a
> control file listing tblspc/databaseoid paths and it will need to plug
> into WAL in case we die during CREATE TABLESPACE. Comments?
> 
> 
> Creating a database
> 
> I think that createdb() is going to have to be reworked if pg_tablespace
> isn't shared (ie, tablespaces are only database unique). The reason being
> that if we create a database which has a table space, pg_tablespace in the
> new database will have to be updated and that cannot be done atomically
> with the `cp` based mechanism we currently use.
> 
> I think I'm going to have to get my hands dirty before I can tell the
> extent to which createdb() will need reworking.
> 
> 
> pg_dump
> 
> Obviously pg_dump will need to be able to dump table spaces. pg_dump
> running against <7.5 will DDL commands without a table space parameter and
> as such the database's physical layout, when loaded into 7.5, will be the
> same as for <7.5.
> 
> ---
> 
> Comments? Questions? Suggestions?
> 
> Thanks,
> 
> Gavin
> 
> ---------------------------(end of broadcast)---------------------------
> TIP 7: don't forget to increase your free space map settings



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