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44.5. Examples

This section contains a very simple example of SPI usage. The procedure execq takes an SQL command as its first argument and a row count as its second, executes the command using SPI_exec and returns the number of rows that were processed by the command. You can find more complex examples for SPI in the source tree in src/test/regress/regress.c and in the spi module.

#include "postgres.h"

#include "executor/spi.h"
#include "utils/builtins.h"

#ifdef PG_MODULE_MAGIC
PG_MODULE_MAGIC;
#endif

int execq(text *sql, int cnt);

int
execq(text *sql, int cnt)
{
    char *command;
    int ret;
    int proc;

    /* Convert given text object to a C string */
    command = text_to_cstring(sql);

    SPI_connect();

    ret = SPI_exec(command, cnt);

    proc = SPI_processed;
    /*
     * If some rows were fetched, print them via elog(INFO).
     */
    if (ret > 0 && SPI_tuptable != NULL)
    {
        TupleDesc tupdesc = SPI_tuptable->tupdesc;
        SPITupleTable *tuptable = SPI_tuptable;
        char buf[8192];
        int i, j;

        for (j = 0; j < proc; j++)
        {
            HeapTuple tuple = tuptable->vals[j];

            for (i = 1, buf[0] = 0; i <= tupdesc->natts; i++)
                snprintf(buf + strlen (buf), sizeof(buf) - strlen(buf), " %s%s",
                        SPI_getvalue(tuple, tupdesc, i),
                        (i == tupdesc->natts) ? " " : " |");
            elog(INFO, "EXECQ: %s", buf);
        }
    }

    SPI_finish();
    pfree(command);

    return (proc);
}

(This function uses call convention version 0, to make the example easier to understand. In real applications you should use the new version 1 interface.)

This is how you declare the function after having compiled it into a shared library (details are in Section 35.9.6.):

CREATE FUNCTION execq(text, integer) RETURNS integer
    AS 'filename'
    LANGUAGE C;

Here is a sample session:

=> SELECT execq('CREATE TABLE a (x integer)', 0);
 execq
-------
     0
(1 row)

=> INSERT INTO a VALUES (execq('INSERT INTO a VALUES (0)', 0));
INSERT 0 1
=> SELECT execq('SELECT * FROM a', 0);
INFO:  EXECQ:  0    -- inserted by execq
INFO:  EXECQ:  1    -- returned by execq and inserted by upper INSERT

 execq
-------
     2
(1 row)

=> SELECT execq('INSERT INTO a SELECT x + 2 FROM a', 1);
 execq
-------
     1
(1 row)

=> SELECT execq('SELECT * FROM a', 10);
INFO:  EXECQ:  0
INFO:  EXECQ:  1
INFO:  EXECQ:  2    -- 0 + 2, only one row inserted - as specified

 execq
-------
     3              -- 10 is the max value only, 3 is the real number of rows
(1 row)

=> DELETE FROM a;
DELETE 3
=> INSERT INTO a VALUES (execq('SELECT * FROM a', 0) + 1);
INSERT 0 1
=> SELECT * FROM a;
 x
---
 1                  -- no rows in a (0) + 1
(1 row)

=> INSERT INTO a VALUES (execq('SELECT * FROM a', 0) + 1);
INFO:  EXECQ:  1
INSERT 0 1
=> SELECT * FROM a;
 x
---
 1
 2                  -- there was one row in a + 1
(2 rows)

-- This demonstrates the data changes visibility rule:

=> INSERT INTO a SELECT execq('SELECT * FROM a', 0) * x FROM a;
INFO:  EXECQ:  1
INFO:  EXECQ:  2
INFO:  EXECQ:  1
INFO:  EXECQ:  2
INFO:  EXECQ:  2
INSERT 0 2
=> SELECT * FROM a;
 x
---
 1
 2
 2                  -- 2 rows * 1 (x in first row)
 6                  -- 3 rows (2 + 1 just inserted) * 2 (x in second row)
(4 rows)               ^^^^^^
                       rows visible to execq() in different invocations

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