Enumerated (enum) types are data types that comprise a static, ordered set of values. They are equivalent to the enum types supported in a number of programming languages. An example of an enum type might be the days of the week, or a set of status values for a piece of data.
Enum types are created using the CREATE TYPE command, for example:
CREATE TYPE mood AS ENUM ('sad', 'ok', 'happy');
Once created, the enum type can be used in table and function definitions much like any other type:
The ordering of the values in an enum type is the order in which the values were listed when the type was created. All standard comparison operators and related aggregate functions are supported for enums. For example:
Example 8-4. Enum Ordering
INSERT INTO person VALUES ('Larry', 'sad'); INSERT INTO person VALUES ('Curly', 'ok'); SELECT * FROM person WHERE current_mood > 'sad'; name | current_mood -------+-------------- Moe | happy Curly | ok (2 rows) SELECT * FROM person WHERE current_mood > 'sad' ORDER BY current_mood; name | current_mood -------+-------------- Curly | ok Moe | happy (2 rows) SELECT name FROM person WHERE current_mood = (SELECT MIN(current_mood) FROM person); name ------- Larry (1 row)
Each enumerated data type is separate and cannot be compared with other enumerated types.
Example 8-5. Lack of Casting
CREATE TYPE happiness AS ENUM ('happy', 'very happy', 'ecstatic'); CREATE TABLE holidays ( num_weeks integer, happiness happiness ); INSERT INTO holidays(num_weeks,happiness) VALUES (4, 'happy'); INSERT INTO holidays(num_weeks,happiness) VALUES (6, 'very happy'); INSERT INTO holidays(num_weeks,happiness) VALUES (8, 'ecstatic'); INSERT INTO holidays(num_weeks,happiness) VALUES (2, 'sad'); ERROR: invalid input value for enum happiness: "sad" SELECT person.name, holidays.num_weeks FROM person, holidays WHERE person.current_mood = holidays.happiness; ERROR: operator does not exist: mood = happiness
If you really need to do something like that, you can either write a custom operator or add explicit casts to your query:
An enum value occupies four bytes on disk. The length of an enum value's textual label is limited by the NAMEDATALEN setting compiled into PostgreSQL; in standard builds this means at most 63 bytes.
Enum labels are case sensitive, so 'happy' is not the same as 'HAPPY'. White space in the labels is significant too.
The translations from internal enum values to textual labels are kept in the system catalog pg_enum. Querying this catalog directly can be useful.
Here is an example for a custom oeprator:
--DROP SCHEMA "test" CASCADE;
CREATE SCHEMA "test";
CREATE TYPE test.myenum AS ENUM (
CREATE TABLE test.test (
id serial NOT NULL UNIQUE,
data test.myenum NOT NULL
INSERT INTO test.test (data) VALUES ('FOO'::test.myenum);
CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION test.myenum_equal( test.myenum, varchar ) RETURNS boolean AS $$
SELECT $1 = CAST($2 AS test.myenum);
$$ LANGUAGE 'sql' IMMUTABLE STRICT;
CREATE OPERATOR test.= (
PROCEDURE = test.myenum_equal,
LEFTARG = test.myenum, RIGHTARG = varchar
SELECT * FROM test.test WHERE data='FOO';
SELECT * FROM test.test WHERE data='BAR';
The ISO SQL Standard does not have an ENUM data type. The "SQL standard"-way of defining an "ENUM-functionality" is provided by CHECK.
CREATE TABLE person (
current_mood VARCHAR(5) NOT NULL CHECK (
(current_mood IN ('sad', 'ok', 'happy')
Note: if may want to use NULL as special value "unknown". Just remove the "NOT NULL" constraint.