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Conventions

This book uses the following typographical conventions to mark certain portions of text: new terms, foreign phrases, and other important passages are emphasized in italics. Everything that represents input or output of the computer, in particular commands, program code, and screen output, is shown in a monospaced font (example). Within such passages, italics (example) indicate placeholders; you must insert an actual value instead of the placeholder. On occasion, parts of program code are emphasized in bold face (example), if they have been added or changed since the preceding example.

The following conventions are used in the synopsis of a command: brackets ([ and ]) indicate optional parts. (In the synopsis of a Tcl command, question marks (?) are used instead, as is usual in Tcl.) Braces ({ and }) and vertical lines (|) indicate that you must choose one alternative. Dots (...) mean that the preceding element can be repeated.

Where it enhances the clarity, SQL commands are preceded by the prompt =>, and shell commands are preceded by the prompt $. Normally, prompts are not shown, though.

An administrator is generally a person who is in charge of installing and running the server. A user could be anyone who is using, or wants to use, any part of the PostgreSQL system. These terms should not be interpreted too narrowly; this book does not have fixed presumptions about system administration procedures.

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