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16.4. Examples

There are more complex examples in src/test/regress/regress.c and in contrib/spi.

Here is a very simple example of trigger usage. Function trigf reports the number of tuples in the triggered relation ttest and skips the operation if the query attempts to insert a null value into x (i.e - it acts as a not-null constraint but doesn't abort the transaction).

#include "executor/spi.h"       /* this is what you need to work with SPI */
#include "commands/trigger.h"   /* -"- and triggers */

extern Datum trigf(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS);

PG_FUNCTION_INFO_V1(trigf);

Datum
trigf(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
    TriggerData *trigdata = (TriggerData *) fcinfo->context;
    TupleDesc   tupdesc;
    HeapTuple   rettuple;
    char       *when;
    bool        checknull = false;
    bool        isnull;
    int         ret, i;

    /* Make sure trigdata is pointing at what I expect */
    if (!CALLED_AS_TRIGGER(fcinfo))
        elog(ERROR, "trigf: not fired by trigger manager");

    /* tuple to return to Executor */
    if (TRIGGER_FIRED_BY_UPDATE(trigdata->tg_event))
        rettuple = trigdata->tg_newtuple;
    else
        rettuple = trigdata->tg_trigtuple;

    /* check for null values */
    if (!TRIGGER_FIRED_BY_DELETE(trigdata->tg_event)
        && TRIGGER_FIRED_BEFORE(trigdata->tg_event))
        checknull = true;

    if (TRIGGER_FIRED_BEFORE(trigdata->tg_event))
        when = "before";
    else
        when = "after ";

    tupdesc = trigdata->tg_relation->rd_att;

    /* Connect to SPI manager */
    if ((ret = SPI_connect()) < 0)
        elog(INFO, "trigf (fired %s): SPI_connect returned %d", when, ret);

    /* Get number of tuples in relation */
    ret = SPI_exec("SELECT count(*) FROM ttest", 0);

    if (ret < 0)
        elog(NOTICE, "trigf (fired %s): SPI_exec returned %d", when, ret);

    /* count(*) returns int8 as of PG 7.2, so be careful to convert */
    i = (int) DatumGetInt64(SPI_getbinval(SPI_tuptable->vals[0],
                                          SPI_tuptable->tupdesc,
                                          1,
                                          &isnull));

    elog (NOTICE, "trigf (fired %s): there are %d tuples in ttest", when, i);

    SPI_finish();

    if (checknull)
    {
        (void) SPI_getbinval(rettuple, tupdesc, 1, &isnull);
        if (isnull)
            rettuple = NULL;
    }

    return PointerGetDatum(rettuple);
}

Now, compile and create the trigger function:

CREATE FUNCTION trigf () RETURNS TRIGGER AS 
'...path_to_so' LANGUAGE C;

CREATE TABLE ttest (x int4);
vac=> CREATE TRIGGER tbefore BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON ttest 
FOR EACH ROW EXECUTE PROCEDURE trigf();
CREATE
vac=> CREATE TRIGGER tafter AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON ttest 
FOR EACH ROW EXECUTE PROCEDURE trigf();
CREATE
vac=> INSERT INTO ttest VALUES (NULL);
WARNING:  trigf (fired before): there are 0 tuples in ttest
INSERT 0 0

-- Insertion skipped and AFTER trigger is not fired

vac=> SELECT * FROM ttest;
 x
---
(0 rows)

vac=> INSERT INTO ttest VALUES (1);
INFO:  trigf (fired before): there are 0 tuples in ttest
INFO:  trigf (fired after ): there are 1 tuples in ttest
                                       ^^^^^^^^
                             remember what we said about visibility.
INSERT 167793 1
vac=> SELECT * FROM ttest;
 x
---
 1
(1 row)

vac=> INSERT INTO ttest SELECT x * 2 FROM ttest;
INFO:  trigf (fired before): there are 1 tuples in ttest
INFO:  trigf (fired after ): there are 2 tuples in ttest
                                       ^^^^^^^^
                             remember what we said about visibility.
INSERT 167794 1
vac=> SELECT * FROM ttest;
 x
---
 1
 2
(2 rows)

vac=> UPDATE ttest SET x = NULL WHERE x = 2;
INFO:  trigf (fired before): there are 2 tuples in ttest
UPDATE 0
vac=> UPDATE ttest SET x = 4 WHERE x = 2;
INFO:  trigf (fired before): there are 2 tuples in ttest
INFO:  trigf (fired after ): there are 2 tuples in ttest
UPDATE 1
vac=> SELECT * FROM ttest;
 x
---
 1
 4
(2 rows)

vac=> DELETE FROM ttest;
INFO:  trigf (fired before): there are 2 tuples in ttest
INFO:  trigf (fired after ): there are 1 tuples in ttest
INFO:  trigf (fired before): there are 1 tuples in ttest
INFO:  trigf (fired after ): there are 0 tuples in ttest
                                       ^^^^^^^^
                             remember what we said about visibility.
DELETE 2
vac=> SELECT * FROM ttest;
 x
---
(0 rows)
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