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EXPLAIN

Name

EXPLAIN  --  show the execution plan of a statement

Synopsis

EXPLAIN [ ANALYZE ] [ VERBOSE ] query        
  

Inputs

ANALYZE

Flag to carry out the query and show actual runtimes.

VERBOSE

Flag to show detailed query plan.

query

Any query.

Outputs

NOTICE: QUERY PLAN: plan

Explicit query plan from the PostgreSQL backend.

EXPLAIN

Flag sent after query plan is shown.

Description

This command displays the execution plan that the PostgreSQL planner generates for the supplied query. The execution plan shows how the table(s) referenced by the query will be scanned---by plain sequential scan, index scan, etc.---and if multiple tables are referenced, what join algorithms will be used to bring together the required tuples from each input table.

The most critical part of the display is the estimated query execution cost, which is the planner's guess at how long it will take to run the query (measured in units of disk page fetches). Actually two numbers are shown: the start-up time before the first tuple can be returned, and the total time to return all the tuples. For most queries the total time is what matters, but in contexts such as an EXISTS sub-query the planner will choose the smallest start-up time instead of the smallest total time (since the executor will stop after getting one tuple, anyway). Also, if you limit the number of tuples to return with a LIMIT clause, the planner makes an appropriate interpolation between the endpoint costs to estimate which plan is really the cheapest.

The ANALYZE option causes the query to be actually executed, not only planned. The total elapsed time expended within each plan node (in milliseconds) and total number of rows it actually returned are added to the display. This is useful for seeing whether the planner's estimates are close to reality.

The VERBOSE option emits the full internal representation of the plan tree, rather than just a summary (and sends it to the postmaster log file, too). Usually this option is only useful for debugging PostgreSQL.

Caution

Keep in mind that the query is actually executed when ANALYZE is used. Although EXPLAIN will discard any output that a SELECT would return, other side-effects of the query will happen as usual. If you wish to use EXPLAIN ANALYZE on an INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE query without letting the query affect your data, use this approach:

BEGIN;
EXPLAIN ANALYZE ...;
ROLLBACK;
      

Notes

There is only sparse documentation on the optimizer's use of cost information in PostgreSQL. Refer to the User's Guide and Programmer's Guide for more information.

Usage

To show a query plan for a simple query on a table with a single int4 column and 128 rows:

EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM foo;
    NOTICE:  QUERY PLAN:

Seq Scan on foo  (cost=0.00..2.28 rows=128 width=4)

EXPLAIN
    
   

For the same table with an index to support an equijoin condition on the query, EXPLAIN will show a different plan:

EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM foo WHERE i = 4;
    NOTICE:  QUERY PLAN:

Index Scan using fi on foo  (cost=0.00..0.42 rows=1 width=4)

EXPLAIN
    
   

And finally, for the same table with an index to support an equijoin condition on the query, EXPLAIN will show the following for a query using an aggregate function:

EXPLAIN SELECT sum(i) FROM foo WHERE i = 4;
    NOTICE:  QUERY PLAN:

Aggregate  (cost=0.42..0.42 rows=1 width=4)
  ->  Index Scan using fi on foo  (cost=0.00..0.42 rows=1 width=4)
    
   

Note that the specific numbers shown, and even the selected query strategy, may vary between PostgreSQL releases due to planner improvements.

Compatibility

SQL92

There is no EXPLAIN statement defined in SQL92.

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