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20.4. Examples

There are more complex examples in src/test/regress/regress.c and in contrib/spi.

Here is a very simple example of trigger usage. Function trigf reports the number of tuples in the triggered relation ttest and skips the operation if the query attempts to insert NULL into x (i.e - it acts as a NOT NULL constraint but doesn't abort the transaction).

#include "executor/spi.h"      /* this is what you need to work with SPI */
#include "commands/trigger.h"   /* -"- and triggers */

extern Datum trigf(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS);

PG_FUNCTION_INFO_V1(trigf);

Datum
trigf(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
        TriggerData    *trigdata = (TriggerData *) fcinfo->context;
        TupleDesc       tupdesc;
        HeapTuple       rettuple;
        char            *when;
        bool            checknull = false;
        bool            isnull;
        int             ret, i;

        /* Make sure trigdata is pointing at what I expect */
        if (!CALLED_AS_TRIGGER(fcinfo))
                elog(ERROR, "trigf: not fired by trigger manager");
        
        /* tuple to return to Executor */
        if (TRIGGER_FIRED_BY_UPDATE(trigdata->tg_event))
                rettuple = trigdata->tg_newtuple;
        else
                rettuple = trigdata->tg_trigtuple;
        
        /* check for NULLs ? */
        if (!TRIGGER_FIRED_BY_DELETE(trigdata->tg_event) &&
                TRIGGER_FIRED_BEFORE(trigdata->tg_event))
                checknull = true;
        
        if (TRIGGER_FIRED_BEFORE(trigdata->tg_event))
                when = "before";
        else
                when = "after ";
        
        tupdesc = trigdata->tg_relation->rd_att;
        
        /* Connect to SPI manager */
        if ((ret = SPI_connect()) < 0)
                elog(NOTICE, "trigf (fired %s): SPI_connect returned %d", when, ret);
        
        /* Get number of tuples in relation */
        ret = SPI_exec("SELECT count(*) FROM ttest", 0);
        
        if (ret < 0)
                elog(NOTICE, "trigf (fired %s): SPI_exec returned %d", when, ret);

        /* count(*) returns int8 as of PG 7.2, so be careful to convert */
        i = (int) DatumGetInt64(SPI_getbinval(SPI_tuptable->vals[0],
                                              SPI_tuptable->tupdesc,
                                              1,
                                              &isnull));
        
        elog (NOTICE, "trigf (fired %s): there are %d tuples in ttest", when, i);
        
        SPI_finish();
        
        if (checknull)
        {
                (void) SPI_getbinval(rettuple, tupdesc, 1, &isnull);
                if (isnull)
                        rettuple = NULL;
        }

        return PointerGetDatum(rettuple);
}
    

Now, compile and create the trigger function:

CREATE FUNCTION trigf () RETURNS OPAQUE AS 
'...path_to_so' LANGUAGE 'C';

CREATE TABLE ttest (x int4);
    
vac=> CREATE TRIGGER tbefore BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON ttest 
FOR EACH ROW EXECUTE PROCEDURE trigf();
CREATE
vac=> CREATE TRIGGER tafter AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON ttest 
FOR EACH ROW EXECUTE PROCEDURE trigf();
CREATE
vac=> INSERT INTO ttest VALUES (NULL);
NOTICE:trigf (fired before): there are 0 tuples in ttest
INSERT 0 0

-- Insertion skipped and AFTER trigger is not fired

vac=> SELECT * FROM ttest;
x
-
(0 rows)

vac=> INSERT INTO ttest VALUES (1);
NOTICE:trigf (fired before): there are 0 tuples in ttest
NOTICE:trigf (fired after ): there are 1 tuples in ttest
                                       ^^^^^^^^
                             remember what we said about visibility.
INSERT 167793 1
vac=> SELECT * FROM ttest;
x
-
1
(1 row)

vac=> INSERT INTO ttest SELECT x * 2 FROM ttest;
NOTICE:trigf (fired before): there are 1 tuples in ttest
NOTICE:trigf (fired after ): there are 2 tuples in ttest
                                       ^^^^^^^^
                             remember what we said about visibility.
INSERT 167794 1
vac=> SELECT * FROM ttest;
x
-
1
2
(2 rows)

vac=> UPDATE ttest SET x = null WHERE x = 2;
NOTICE:trigf (fired before): there are 2 tuples in ttest
UPDATE 0
vac=> UPDATE ttest SET x = 4 WHERE x = 2;
NOTICE:trigf (fired before): there are 2 tuples in ttest
NOTICE:trigf (fired after ): there are 2 tuples in ttest
UPDATE 1
vac=> SELECT * FROM ttest;
x
-
1
4
(2 rows)

vac=> DELETE FROM ttest;
NOTICE:trigf (fired before): there are 2 tuples in ttest
NOTICE:trigf (fired after ): there are 1 tuples in ttest
NOTICE:trigf (fired before): there are 1 tuples in ttest
NOTICE:trigf (fired after ): there are 0 tuples in ttest
                                       ^^^^^^^^
                             remember what we said about visibility.
DELETE 2
vac=> SELECT * FROM ttest;
x
-
(0 rows)
    
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